Source: Warhammer Armies Project: Unofficial 9th Edition

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Warhammer Armies Project:
Unofficial 9th Edition
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Table of Contents

Basic Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 9)

We're almost ready to dive into the turn sequence that drives the bloody business of Warhammer. However, before we begin, there are few basic ideas and game mechanics that it's worth discussing. These are essentially principles that are so broad that they pop up again and again while you're playing a game, so it makes a lot of sense to establish them before getting caught up in the more specialised rules that you'll find later on.

Measuring Distances(Main Rulebook, p. 9)

In Warhammer, distances are measured in inches (") with a tape measure. You can always measure distances and range at any time and for any reasons, which is especially useful before you declare an action, such as charging or shooting.

This allows you to check whether your units are in range of their target before they launch an attack. After all, our warriors are all led by experienced campaigners and we can assume that they can accurately judge the range of their weapons, even if we, their generals, cannot (one does not, after all, keep a dog and then bark themself).

Distances between models and all other objects are always measured from closest point on one base to the closest point on the other base. Distances between units are always measured to and from the closest models in each of the units (see diagram below).

Sometimes units will be mounted on movement trays for ease of use. Nevertheless, always use the model's base, and not the movement tray, as the reference point when taking your measurements. So, for example, if any part of a model's base is within 6" of the base of an enemy model, the two models are said to be within 6" of each other. Sometimes the rules will call upon a unit to move directly towards another unit, or some other feature on the battlefield. Where this is the case, draw an imaginary line between the centre of the unit and its destination, and move the unit forward along this line a number of inches equal to the distance stated.

The distance between the blue unit and the red unit is 6". We therefore say that the Goblins are within 6". The distance between the blue unit and the red monster is 3". We therefore say that the monster is within 3".

Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 9)

You’ll often need to roll dice to see how the actions of your models turn out – how effective their shooting is, what damage they've done in close combat, and so on.

Almost all the dice rolls in Warhammer use standard six-sided dice, also known as D6, but there are some exceptions as noted below.

Rolling a D3(Main Rulebook, p. 9)

In some circumstances you may be told to roll a D3. As there's no such thing as a three-sided dice, use the following method to determine a score between 1 and 3. Roll a D6 and halve the score, rounding up. Thus 1 or 2 = 1, 3 or 4 = 2 and 5 or 6 = 3.

Artillery Dice & Scatter Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 9)

Warhammer uses two special dice: the artillery dice (marked 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and Misfire) and a scatter dice (marked with arrows and Hit! symbols). These dice are mostly used to represent the effects of various war machines, such as cannon and stone throwers. Note that, except where clearly specified, the artillery and scatter dice cannot be re-rolled. We've not talked about re-rolls yet, but we will do shortly.

Dividing Values(Main Rulebook, p. 9)

Sometimes you'll be called upon to divide the result of a dice roll, a characteristic or some other value. Where this happens, any fractions should always be rounded up. So a 2D6 roll of 7 halved, would be a result of 4 (3.5 rounded up). Similarly, 10% of a unit of fifty one models, rounded up, would be 6 models.

Modifying Dice Rolls(Main Rulebook, p. 10)

Sometimes, you may have to modify the result of the dice roll. This is noted as D6 plus or minus a number, such as D6+1. Roll the dice and add or subtract the number given to or from the score (as appropriate) to get the final result. For example, D6+2 means roll a dice an add 2 to the score, giving a total between 3 and 8. You may also be told to roll a number of dice in one go, which is written as 2D6, 3D6 and so on. Roll the indicated number of dice and add the scores together, so a 2D6 roll is two dice rolled and added together for a score of 2-12. Another method is to multiply the score of a dice by a certain amount, such as D6x5 for a total of between 5 and 30.

Re-roll(Main Rulebook, p. 10)

In some situations, the rules allow you to pick up and re-roll a dice. This is exactly what it sounds like – pick up the dice you wish to re-roll, and roll it again. The second score counts, even if it means a worse result than the first, and no single dice can normally be re-rolled more than once, regardless of the source of the re-roll. If you re-roll a single 2D6 or 3D6 roll, you must re-roll all of the dice and not just some of them, unless the rule granting the re-roll specifies otherwise.

If a model is granted a re-roll from a special rule or similar while the enemy might have a special rule or similar that forces successful rolls to be re-rolled, they cancel each other out and no re-rolls are made for as long as both special rules are in effect.

Roll-off(Main Rulebook, p. 10)

If the rules require players to roll-off, this simply means that each player rolls a dice and the player that scores the highest result wins the roll-off. If the players roll the same result, both dice must be re-rolled again until one player is the winner – any modifiers that applied to the first dice roll are also applied to any further rolls.

Randomising(Main Rulebook, p. 10)

Sometimes you'll be called upon to randomly select something – often a model, but sometimes a magic item, a spell or similar. Where this is the case, simply assign a D6 result to each of the things the random selection must be made from, and roll the dice to make your random choice. If you have fewer than six items to randomise between, simply re-roll any unassigned results until you roll an assigned number.

Templates(Main Rulebook, p. 10)

Some spells and war machines are so powerful that they don't just target a single model or unit, but have an 'area effect' which might encompass (and often utterly devastate) several different units. To better represent these, Warhammer uses a series of four different templates:

  • A small round template (3" in diameter)

  • A large round template (5" in diameter)

  • A flame template (a teardrop-shaped template roughly 8" long)

  • A straight line (length varies depending on the rule, the line itself can only ever cover one model per rank)

The templates are used as a way of determining whether or not models have been hit by an attack that has an area of effect or blast radius. When an attack uses a template, it will explain how the template is positioned, including any kind of scatter that might occur (scatter is discussed more completely next in this section). To work out which models are hit, you normally need to hold the template over an enemy unit or a particular point on the battlefield (as close to the battlefield or unit as possible), and then look underneath to see which models' bases lie partially or completely underneath the template.

Normally, any model that is fully or even partially underneath the template is hit automatically with the effect described in the special rules for the attack. Remember that a model’s base is counted as being part of the model itself, so as long as any part of the base is under the template everything is hit.

If a model is hit by multiple templates at the same time, resolve each template one at a time in an order chosen by the controlling player.

Scatter(Main Rulebook, p. 11)

Sometimes a rule will call for an object (a template, counter or even a unit) to be placed on the battlefield and then scattered. When this occurs, follow this procedure:

Place the object on the battlefield, as instructed by the rule. Roll a scatter dice to determine the direction of scatter, and any other dice required by the rule to determine the scatter distance. For example, if something is said to 'scatter 2D6" in a random direction' then you'd roll the scatter dice for the direction and 2D6" for the distance. It's normally a good idea to roll these as close to the scattering object as possible, to minimise the inaccuracy that will inevitably creep in as you attempt to match the vector.

If a Hit! is rolled on the scatter dice, the object does not move – leave it in place and resolve the rest of the rule.

If an arrow is rolled, move the object in the direction of the arrow and the distance (in inches) shown on the other dice, ignoring intervening terrain, units, etc, unless the rule states otherwise. Once the object has scattered to its final position, you can resolve the effects of the rule. Note that war machines usually use the artillery dice to determine the distance scattered.

Choosing a Random Direction(Main Rulebook, p. 11)

Some rules require that you choose a random direction. To do so, roll the scatter dice, and use the direction indicated by the direction of the arrow. If you roll a Hit!, use the arrow shown on the Hit! symbol to determine the direction.

Characteristics Test(Main Rulebook, p. 11)

A model will sometimes be called upon to take a characteristic test (see Characteristics for more info). Such a test could be applied against any characteristic the model has, save Leadership. A Toughness test is a characteristic test, as is a Strength test or an Initiative test, and so on.

Models will not normally have a choice of which characteristic they must use – the characteristic to be tested will be specified in the rule.

To make a characteristic test, roll a D6 and compare the score to the relevant characteristic in the model's profile. If the score is equal to or less than the number in the profile, the test is passed with no ill effect. If the score is greater than the number in the model's profile, the test has been failed, and something nasty will occur, as detailed in the rule that called for the test.

Where a model (or a unit) has more than one value for the same characteristic, as is the case with cavalry, for example, a characteristic test is always taken against the highest of the values.

If the unit is required to take a characteristic test, the best value in the unit is used. If every model in a unit is required to take a characteristic test, then each model uses its own best value instead.

Automatic Pass and Fail(Main Rulebook, p. 11)

When taking a characteristic test a natural roll of 6 is always a failure, and a natural 1 is always a success, regardless of any other modifiers. However, if the model has a characteristic of 0 or – it automatically fails the test.

Leadership Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 12)

At certain times, a model or unit might be called upon to take a Leadership test. This represents them drawing upon their courage to face disheartening circumstances, or to perform certain manoeuvres.

To take a Leadership, roll 2D6. If the result is equal to or less than the model's Leadership value, then the test has been passed. If the result is greater than the model's Leadership value, a suitably dire consequence will occur, as detailed in the rule that called for the test. This will normally involve the unit turning tail and fleeing from the enemy.

If a unit includes models with different Leadership values, always use the one with the highest Leadership – warriors naturally look to the most steadfast of their number for guidance. Note that a unit that has a LD of '0' or '–' automatically fail Leadership tests.

When taking a Leadership test, sometimes you have to take it on a unit’s unmodified Leadership. A unit’s unmodified Leadership is the highest Leadership characteristic in the unit. That means the Leadership from any characters in the unit itself (but not from outside the unit) with a higher Leadership can be used unless specifically stated otherwise.

Unmodified Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 12)

When taking a Leadership test, sometimes you have to take it on a unit’s unmodified Leadership. A unit’s unmodified Leadership is the highest Leadership characteristic in the unit. That means the Leadership from any characters in the unit itself (but not from outside the unit) with a higher Leadership can be used unless specifically stated otherwise.

Psychology Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 12)

Psychology tests are a form of Leadership that applies in certain situations throughout the game, most commonly when testing for Panic. Psychology tests are governed by certain restrictions which do not apply to Leadership tests, and some models can be immune to needing to take certain Psychology tests.

Forming Units(Main Rulebook, p. 12)

The models that make up your Warhammer army must be organised into 'units'. A unit usually consists of several models that have banded together, but a single, powerful model such as a lone character, a chariot or a Dragon, a war machine and its crew, and so on, are also considered to be a unit.

A unit consists of 1 or more models that are arranged in base contact with each other in formations of squares and rectangles. All models in a unit must face the same direction. In addition, all models in the unit must be arranged in a formation that consists of one or more horizontal lines, called ranks, and a number of vertical lines, called files. This is why we often refer to basic warriors as 'rank and file' troops.

A unit may not have more complete ranks than they have files, e.g. if the unit is 5 models wide, it may at most have complete 5 ranks. The exception to this is if the unit is too wide to pass in between terrain or units; in these situations, the unit may temporary reform into a formation with more ranks than files for as long as it takes to pass the terrain or unit. After this, it must return to a legal formation again as soon as possible. As far as possible there must be the same number of models in each rank. Where this is not possible it must be the rear rank that has fewer models, and models should always be placed as centrally as possible. Once formed into a unit, the models move and fight as a single entity for the rest of the battle.

In some cases, you will see the rules talking about models in 'base contact'. Note that for whatever reason, a model is never considered to be in base contact with itself, only other models.

Here you can see examples of correct and incorrect formations.

Removing Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 12)

When casualties occur, models are removed from the back rank of the unit. If the unit is reduced to a single rank, casualties must be removed evenly from either end of the line.

If a model has to be removed from a fighting rank as there are no others to replace them – for example a unit champion or character – another model will immediately fill the gap.

Unit Facing(Main Rulebook, p. 13)

A model has a forward, flank and rear arc based on the direction that it is facing. We'll be using this later to work out what the model can attack, as well as calculating which side of the model an enemy will be able to charge as the game goes on.

A model's forward (or 'front'), flank and rear arcs extend out from its corners at 45° angles, forming four 90° quadrants. A unit's facings therefore are determined by the facing of its constituent models.

Unit Strength(Main Rulebook, p. 13)

All models and units have a Unit Strength value to establish the relative power of all these different creatures. This is used to determine the overall size and power of each model for purposes like ranks, charging, flanking and so on, which will be described later.

In most cases this is worked out by simply counting the number of models in a unit. However, some huge creatures such as Trolls, chariots, etc, are more powerful than a man on foot! These creatures have a different Unit Strength. For information on each model’s Unit Strength, see the Troop Types chapter.

To work out the unit strength of a unit, count the number of models in the unit and multiply it by the appropriate number given. In the case of several models with different unit strengths in the same unit, simply add these together.

Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 13)

Line of sight determines what a model can 'see'. Many situations call for you to determine whether or not a model has line of sight. A model normally needs line of sight whenever it wishes to attack an enemy, whether with sword, spell or bow.

Line of sight literally represents your warriors' view of the enemy – they must be able to see their foe through, under or over the battlefield terrain, and other models (friendly or enemy).

For one model to have line of sight to another, you must be able to trace an unblocked line from the front arc of its base to the base of the target. However, models with a higher Line of Sight value can see and be seen behind models or terrain with a lower Line of Sight value.

For more information about the different Line of Sight values, see the Troop Types chapter for models, and Battlefield Terrain chapter for terrain.

Example: A model with Line of Sight value 2 can see and be seen behind a model with Line of Sight value 1, but cannot see or be seen behind a model with Line of Sight Value 3.

Sequencing(Main Rulebook, p. 13)

Whilst every effort has been made to make sure that the sequencing of rules is utterly clear, occasionally you'll find that two or more rules are to be resolved at the same time – normally 'at the start of the Movement phase' or similar. When this happens, resolve both rules at the same time whenever possible. If this is not possible for any reason, then the player whose turn it is chooses the order.

Basic Rules and Advanced Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 14)

Finally, it's worth remembering that the rules for Warhammer are broken up into two distinct halves: basic rules and advanced rules.

Basic rules apply to all the models in the game, unless specifically stated otherwise. They include the rules for movement, shooting, close combat and so on, as well as the rules for Panic tests. These are all the rules you'll need for your average infantry model.

Advanced rules apply to specific types of model, whether because they have a special kind of weapon (such as a spear), unusual skills (such as flaming attacks or the ability to regenerate damaged flesh), because they are different to their fellows (such as a standard bearer or a mighty hero), or because they are not normal infantry models (a knight, a cannon or even a Dragon). The advanced rules that apply to a unit are indicated in the entry for the unit in their relevant Warhammer Armies book.

Basic Versus Advanced (Main Rulebook, p. 14)

Where rules apply to a specific model, they always override any contradicting basic rules. For example, the basic rules state that a model must take Panic test under certain situations. If, however, that model has a rule that makes it immune to Panic, then it does not test for Panic – the advanced rule takes precedence. On rare occasions, a conflict may arise between a rule in this rulebook, and one printed in a Warhammer Armies book. Where this occurs, the rule printed in the Warhammer Armies book always takes precedence.

The Most Important Rule(Main Rulebook, p. 14)

Remember, you're playing to enjoy a challenging battle with friends, where having fun and keeping to the spirit of the game is more important than winning at any cost.

Warhammer is an involving game, with many different races, weapons, and endless possibilities. In a game of this size and level of complexity there are bound to be certain occasions where a particular situation lies outside the rules as they are written. Warhammer players should feel free to improvise where necessary, resolving such situations in a friendly and mutually agreed manner, and evolving the game far beyond the published rules if they wish.

When you come across a situation in a battle that is not covered fully by the rules, be prepared to interpret a rule or come up with a suitable house rule for yourselves.

When a situation of contention arises, players should agree on a fair and reasonable solution and get on with the game as quickly as possible. The most common way of resolving any disputes is for a player to roll a D6 to see whose interpretation applies in that instance. On the roll of 1-3 player A may decide, on a 4-6 player B may decide. After the game has finished, sit down and discuss what happened with your opponent and see if you can both reach an agreement in case the same situation ever arises again (this is called a 'house rule').

Likewise; if there are any rules you or your gaming group dislike, feel free to discuss them among yourself and change them accordingly to something you prefer. This book is meant as a framework to play the game around, but feel free to make up new rules or changes as you see fit as long as your opponent agrees with you.

Characteristics(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

The miniatures used to play games of Warhammer are referred to as 'models' in the rules that follow. Models represent a huge variety of troops, ranging from cowardly Goblins and noble Elves, to mighty Dragons. Each model is an individual playing piece with its own skills and capabilities, to reflect all the differences between such warriors, each model has its own characteristics profile.

Characteristics of Models(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

Warhammer uses nine different statistics or characteristics to describe the various attributes of the different models. All characteristics are rated on a scale from 0 to 10 – they cannot go below 0 or rise above 10.

If certain spells or special rules give an increase or decrease to a model’s Characteristics, then you use the new value for as long as that spells or special rule is in effect. However, this does not apply to weapons of any kind (see Weapon and Armour for more information).

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

Often called Move, this shows the number of inches a model can move on the battlefield under normal circumstances. For example, a Man with a Move of 4 (M4) can move up to 4" when moving at full rate. A horse moves far faster and therefore has M8.

Weapon Skill(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

This defines how accomplished or skilled a warrior is with their weapons, or how determined and vicious a monster is. The higher the score, the more likely the model is to hit an opponent in close combat. An ordinary Man has WS3, whilst a battle-hardened hero might have WS4, WS5 or possibly even higher!

Ballistic Skill(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

This shows how accurate a warrior is with ranged weapons such as bows or handguns. The higher this value is, the easier a creature finds it to hit with missile attacks. An ordinary Man has BS3, but a keen-eyed Elf has BS4. Some monsters have natural weapons that can be used at range (they might spit venom, for example) and they often use BS to determine whether they hit or not.

Strength(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

Strength gives a measure of how strong a creature is. An exceptionally puny creature might have a Strength characteristic of 1, while a mighty Giant has S6. Men have S3. Strength tells you how hard a model can hit and how easily it can hurt an opponent it has struck in close combat.

Toughness(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

This is a measure of a creature's ability to resist physical damage and pain, and reflects such factors as the resilience of a creature's flesh, hide or skin. The tougher a model is, the better it can withstand an enemy's blows. A normal Man has T3, but a creature such as a Treeman, with tough wooden flesh, has an incredible T6!

Wounds(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

This shows how much damage a creature can take before it dies or is so badly hurt that it can't fight any more. Most men and man-sized models have a Wounds characteristic value of 1. Large monsters and mighty heroes are often able to withstand several wounds that would slay a smaller creature, and so have W2, W3, W4 or even more.

Initiative(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

This indicates how fast a creature can react. Creatures with a low Initiative score (Orcs, with Initiative 2) are slow and cumbersome, while creatures with a high Initiative score (Elves, with Initiative 5) are quicker and more agile. Humans have Initiative 3. In close combat, Initiative dictates the order in which creatures strike.

Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

This shows the number of times a creature attacks during close combat. Most warriors and creatures have an Attacks value of 1, although some elite troops, monsters or heroes may be able to strike several times and have A2, A3 or more.

Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

Leadership shows how courageous, determined, and self-controlled a model is. A creature with a low value is very unruly or cowardly, to say the least! Men have Ld7, which is average, whilst easily scared Night Goblins have a Leadership value of only 5.

Characteristics of Zero(Main Rulebook, p. 15)

Some creatures have been given a value of '0' (often shown as a dash: '–') for certain characteristics, which means that they have no ability whatsoever in that skill. This usually applies to creatures unable to use missile weapons, so they have BS0 or BS-, but it might equally well apply to other characteristics too. For example, some creatures or war machines may have no Attacks (A0 or A–).

If any model has a Movement value of 0, it cannot move at all for any reason, unless it has some special rule that allows it to move another way.

If any model has a Weapon Skill of 0 then it is unable to defend itself in close combat, and any blows struck against it will therefore automatically hit.

If at any time a model's Strength, Toughness or Wounds are reduced to 0 or less by magic or a special rule, it is slain and removed from play.

Fighting a Battle(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

A Warhammer battle is a chaotic thing. Units of bellowing warriors charge and counter-charge, hacking at the foe with axe, sword and cleaver. The ground trembles to the hooves of galloping cavalry. Archers blacken the skies with arrows, cannons belch forth death and puissant sorcerers wield devastating magic.

In order to turn the maelstrom of battle into a manageable game, players alternate moving and fighting with their units. So, one player will move and fight with their forces first, and then the opponent will move and fight. This process is then repeated, with the first player moving and fighting again, and so on until the game is done.

Choosing An Army(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

First, you must choose an army to play and a points value to use. In a pitched battle, both your and your opponent’s armies should be at the same points value. You are allowed to have less points than that agreed on, but not more.

The Battlefield(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

The size of the battlefield depends on the size of the game played. A standard game of 2500 points is best played on a 72" x 48" table.

Firstly, place the terrain you want to use. Rules are not strict here, but a good guideline is placing one terrain piece for every 24" x 24" square of the table.

Players take their turn to place the terrain pieces on the tabletop. Once finished, both players should agree on what sort of terrain each piece is to clarify what certain rules they might have during the battle.

Deployment(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

After placing the terrain, it is time to choose which side of the table each player deploys on. Normally, this is the longer sides of the table. Each player rolls a dice and whoever rolls highest picks the side of the table they wish their army to start on and deploy their first unit. The two players then take it in turns to place their units until they are finished.

All units (not including Characters) costing less than 50 points must be placed at the same time. All Characters must be placed at the same time after all your other units have been deployed, but may be set up in separate locations or units in their deployment zone.

When deploying your units, place them at least 1" apart so it is made clear which units are separate from each other.

Starting The Battle(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

After deployment is finished, the players roll a dice to decide which player will begin. The player with the least amount of deployment drops adds +1 to their result. In case both players roll the same result, re-roll the dice until one player rolls higher.

A standard game lasts 6 whole turns. A turn consists of the Movement, Magic, Shooting and Close Combat phase of both players. Once the 6 turns are finished, calculate the casualties and completed objectives for both armies to determine the winner. For more information on various battles, see the Scenario chapter.

The Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

Players alternate moving and fighting with their units. So, one player will move and fight with their forces first, and then the opponent will move and fight. This process is then repeated, with the first player moving and fighting again, and so on until the game is done.

During their turn, a player can usually move and fight with of all of their units. For convenience and flow of game play, we divide a player's turn into four main phases:

  1. Movement

  2. Magic

  3. Shooting

  4. Close Combat

This means you move any models you want first, then cast spells, then shoot and finally resolve any close combats. This process helps to keep track of what is going on and makes it easier to know when one player's actions are over and the opponent can start their turn.

The Turn Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

In a complete game turn, both players get a player turn, each divided into the Movement, Magic, Shooting and Close Combat phases, as shown above. One game turn will therefore comprise two player turns, each with its own Movement, Magic, Shooting and Close Combat phases. Whenever a rule refers to a 'turn', whether in this book, a Warhammer Armies book or an expansion, it means 'player turn', otherwise it will specifically state 'game turn'.

Exceptions(Main Rulebook, p. 16)

While playing your game of Warhammer, you'll occasionally discover exceptions to the general turn sequence laid out above, when things are worked out as they occur rather than in any strict order, or perhaps that both players will have to do something at the same time. Occasionally the actions of one player will trigger the sudden appearance of a particular troop type, or may activate some special rule or occurrence. When this happens, the exceptional rule will contain all the information you need to resolve it.

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 17)

Mastery of the Movement phase is vital to your victory on the battlefield. It is in this phase that you'll attempt to outmanoeuvre your foe, by moving your archers and cavalry units to where they can best dominate the battlefield, positioning regiments to threaten the enemy flank and charging your warriors into close combat when the time is right.

Moving an army is an important and often decisive part of the Warhammer game. When opposing commanders are well matched, movement can be as challenging and satisfying as a good game of chess. However, unlike a chessboard, the tabletop is not divided into exact squares. Instead, movement is determined using a measuring tape or ruler.

This chapter starts with the common rules for moving units on the tabletop and making basic manoeuvres, before diving into the sequence of the Movement phase itself. The same rules govern almost all movement.

Any exceptions that apply to chargers and fleeing troops are discussed in the relevant sub-phase. Also, a few units move in a special way (flying creatures for example). These are exceptions to the usual rules which, for the sake of convenience, are discussed later in the book.

Moving Your Units(Main Rulebook, p. 17)

A unit can move straight forward any distance up to its Movement value (M) in inches.

In Warhammer, a normal move for any model, and therefore any unit of models, is to move forward a number of inches up to their Movement characteristic.

Remember that individual models are not permitted to leave their units and so a unit effectively moves as a single entity. If, for whatever reason, there is more than one Move characteristic in the unit, then the entire unit is treated as having the same Move value as the slowest model.

Units are cumbersome, and find it hard to change direction. Models (and units) must move forward in a straight line, unless performing a manoeuvre, which we'll discuss in a moment.

When moving models it is a common mistake to measure the distance from the front of the base and then place the model so the back of its base is on the far side of the tape measure. This is incorrect, as it adds the entire length of the model's base (or the unit's bases) to the distance moved. Always use a common measuring point — in this example, the front of the first rank.

1" Apart(Main Rulebook, p. 17)

Whilst moving, a unit is not allowed to approach closer than 1" to another unit, friend or foe, or impassable terrain (as described in the Battlefield Terrain chapter). You may however, still pivot on the spot with your unit, as long as it does not end its movement within 1" of a unit or impassable terrain. If pivoting would cause you to come into base contact with another unit or impassable terrain, you must move your model back so that it is still 1" away from these after your pivot. If your model cannot be moved back because it is between two units or pieces of impassable terrain, you should, if possible, move the other unit back so the pivot can be performed. Note that units that are engaged in close combat may never be moved back in this way. On the off chance that neither unit can be moved back, the pivot may not be made.

This rule does not apply to charge moves, as the whole point of charging is to get a unit into base contact with an enemy. Occasionally, a unit will have approached to within 1" of a unit it did not charge as the result of moving into contact with a unit it did charge. This is perfectly acceptable, although players may wish to nudge the units further apart to maintain a suitable degree of clarity.

Manoeuvres(Main Rulebook, p. 18)

There are two specific manoeuvres that enable a unit to change direction or rearrange its ranks: wheel and reform.

As with a normal move, a unit cannot carry out a manoeuvre if doing so would take it to within 1" of another unit.

Also, none of the models in the unit may move more than twice their Movement rate as a result of a manoeuvre (i.e. models with Move 4 can move up to 8").

Wheel(Main Rulebook, p. 18)

A wheel manoeuvre is a basic turn performed by pivoting the unit around one of its front corners.

Performing a wheel is often the best way of making a modest alteration to the direction a unit is facing whilst still being able to advance. When performing a wheel, the leading edge of the formation moves forward, pivoting round one of the front corners. The unit swings round like the spoke of a turning wheel and completes the manoeuvre facing a different direction. During the Remaining Moves sub-phase, wheels are measured as follows:

When a unit is wheeling, you measure the distance moved by the outside model of the front rank. Once the wheel is complete, you may use any movement that the unit has remaining. A unit that is not charging can wheel several times during its move, and indeed can mix forward movement and wheeling, as long as it has enough movement to do so. Units are not allowed to wheel backwards.

To wheel, one corner of the forma tion is moved forward while leaving the opposite corner stationary to act as a pivot. The unit swings round the wheel and completer the manoeuvre facing a different direction. Here we see a unit making three wheels to move round a rock.

Reform(Main Rulebook, p. 19)

You can completely rearrange your unit, so that it is facing in any direction, by giving up all other movement and shooting.

A unit of troops can change the direction in which it is facing and rearrange its formation all at once by means of a manoeuvre called a reform. The leader issues the order to adopt a new formation and the troops move to assume their new positions.

Keeping the centre point of the unit the same, arrange the unit into a new formation of as many ranks as you please, facing whichever direction you wish. Remember that none of the models in the unit can move more than twice their Movement rate.

A reform is a complicated manoeuvre and ordinarily prevents the unit from moving any further that turn, and also stops it from firing missile weapons in the Shooting phase.

When a unit reforms, it can change its number of ranks or files (A), the direction it is facing (B), or both (C).

The Movement Phase Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 20)

Work your way through the sub-phases shown in the summary below. The units in your army can act in whatever order you wish within each sub-phase, providing that you complete one sub-phase before moving onto the next.

Each unit will normally only be allowed to act in one sub-phase (with the exception of Start of Turn) unless it has special rules that permit it to do otherwise.

Movement Summary

Work your way through the following sub-phases:

  1. Start of Phase
    Some models have particular actions they must take at the start of the turn.

  2. Charge
    The player can now attempt to have his units charge into close combat.

  3. Compulsory Moves
    Sometimes a player has no choice over whether or not or how to move a unit, most commonly when they are fleeing.

  4. Remaining Moves
    As the name suggests, this is where all other movement is resolved – 'normal' moves, for want of a better phrase.

The First Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 20)

At the very start of a battle, it is unlikely that there will be any units in range to charge, and there shouldn't be any fleeing models just yet either.

This means that unless some specific special rules are in play, or you have a model such as a Chaos Spawn that always moves in the Compulsory Moves sub-phase, you can skip straight to remaining moves in the first player turn.

Start of Phase(Main Rulebook, p. 20)

The player first resolves any actions or rules that must happen at the start of the phase.

Some warriors will have special actions they have to perform at the start of the Movement phase. Such rules are not common, and their details will be clearly stated in the relevant Warhammer Armies book. If you don't have any actions to perform during the Start of Turn sub-phase, it's worth using it as a tie break (or breathing space) between one turn and the next where you can remove stray casualties, errant dice and all the other bits of gaming detritus that builds up on the battlefield as the game goes on.

Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 21)

The Charge sub-phase is perhaps the most important part of the Movement phase – this is where you'll unleash your forces to the bloody work of close combat. Battles can be won or lost on the timing of a charge. Charge too soon, and your troops will tire and lose momentum before they reach the enemy and the charge will fall short; wait too long and the enemy will instead charge you; but choose the right moment and the momentum of the charge will sweep your warriors to glorious victory.

In this sub-phase, you'll choose one of your units and declare the charge you want it to make. Your opponent will then have the chance to have their unit hold its ground or react to the charge, either by standing and shooting or fleeing.

Once the charge reaction has been resolved, you can nominate another of your units to declare a charge, and so on, until all of your charges have been declared and reacted to – then you get to make your charge rolls and resolve the charges.

Declare Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 21)

The player picks one of their units and announces which enemy unit it will charge. The enemy must make its charge reaction before another charge can be declared.

The first thing you need to do in the charge sub-phase is to declare any charges you wish to make. Except in a few unusual circumstances, you are never forced to charge. It's almost always your decision, so don't let a glib-tongued opponent tell you otherwise! However, charging is the only way for units to reach close combat with the foe. If you want to attack an enemy then you must charge them – you simply cannot move into close combat without having declared a charge.

To declare a charge you must indicate which of your units is charging, and which enemy unit it is going to charge. You're always allowed to measure the distance between the charger and the potential target before declaring the charge, as this might well affect your decision whether or not to declare a charge.

When you declare a charge, one or more of the models in your unit must be able to trace a line of sight to the enemy unit, and the target must lie at least partially within the charging unit's front arc.

Can I Charge?(Main Rulebook, p. 21)

Not all units can charge. The most common reason for a unit being unable to charge is because it is already fighting in close combat, but other circumstances, such as fleeing, or the effect of a special rule, can also prevent a unit from declaring a charge. These other situations are fairly rare, and they will be clearly explained when you encounter them.

A unit cannot declare an impossible charge – i.e. one that it cannot possibly complete, either because the enemy unit is outside of the chargers' maximum possible charge range, or because intervening obstructions (such as other units or impassable terrain) make it impossible for the unit to make a charge move that allows it to move into contact. Note that if such obstruction is another unit, and there is a chance that the intervening unit will move out of the chargers' way before the charge is completed, the charge is 'possible', and therefore can be declared (remember that you still need to see the target to declare the charge though).

To make such a judgement, you'll need to know how a charge move is completed, which is discussed later.

Charge Reaction(Main Rulebook, p. 21)

An enemy unit that has had a charge declared against it must hold or perform a charge reaction - shooting at the chargers or retreating from the threat. Once the charge reaction is complete, the charging player can declare a charge with another unit, until they have declared all the charges they wish to.

When you declare a charge, the target unit isn't necessarily going to sit there passively waiting for your warriors to bear down on it. Depending on the target's armament and general fighting ability, it might choose to steel itself for the charge's impact, all the better to fight off the attackers, fire a volley of arrows or other missiles into the oncoming chargers, or simply decide to opt for discretionary valour and flee from the foe.

The response your unit makes when a charge is declared is referred to as a charge reaction. As your opponent declares a charge, you can declare a charge reaction for your charged unit. There are two types of charge reaction: Stand and Shoot, and Flee! A unit that does not make a charge reaction is always considered to Hold.

Hold(Main Rulebook, p. 21)

If a unit Holds, it stands last in place to receive the charge.

A unit will normally elect to Hold if it has no missile weapons and fancies its chances in the coming fight. Units that are already in close combat can only Hold. Holding units stay exactly as they are and await the charging foe.

Stand and Shoot(Main Rulebook, p. 22)

If a unit elects to perform a Stand & Shoot reaction it readies its missile weapons and gives the charging unit a swift volley. A Stand and Shoot reaction can only be declared if the unit has missile weapons of some kind.

As the unit requires time to aim and fire its weapons, a Stand & Shoot reaction can only be declared if the range to the enemy is greater than the charging unit's Move characteristic.

If a Stand & Shoot charge reaction is declared, the unit makes a normal, although out of sequence, shooting attack against the charging unit (see the Shooting Phase on for more details on shooting attacks). Once the shooting attack, and any Panic tests caused by it, have been resolved, the unit is treated as having declared a hold reaction.

A Stand & Shoot reaction can even be declared against an enemy unit that starts its charge outside the firing unit's maximum range – the shooting is resolved normally assuming the enemy is just within maximum range of the shooting unit's shortest-ranged weapon. If the charge fails, for whatever reason, we assume that the chargers closed to within the weapons' maximum range before being driven off.

In most cases, there's no downside to a Stand & Shoot over simply holding. You'll probably manage to pick off a few enemies as they charge, so it's normally a good idea to shoot if you can.

Flee(Main Rulebook, p. 22)

A Flee reaction is exactly what it sounds like: the unit turns tail and runs rather than receive the charge.

You'll normally want to declare a Flee reaction if you think that your unit has no chance of surviving the ensuing fight. A Flee reaction is not always voluntary – units that are already fleeing must declare a Flee reaction, and certain terrifying creatures may force an otherwise steady to unit to Flee instead of other options (see the rules for Terror).

If a unit chooses a Flee reaction, for whatever reason, use the following procedure:

  • Immediately turn the unit about its centre so that it is facing directly away from the centre of the charging enemy unit (ignore other units or impassable terrain). This turn is 'free' and does not reduce the distance the unit will flee.

  • After turning, the unit flees 2D6" in the direction it is facing, as described under Move Fleeing Units in the Compulsory Moves sub-phase.

It should be noted that a Flee reaction does not guarantee escape from oncoming chargers. If the fleeing unit rolls poorly and the chargers roll well, the fleeing unit might yet be caught, as we'll discuss later.

(1) The blue unit Flee! from the red unit. It pivots around its centre until it is facing directly away from the centre of the red unit.
(2) It then flees straight forward a distance equal to its Flee! roll (in this case 3+3=6").

Redirecting the Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 23)

If the target unit declares a Flee reaction, or gets destroyed for any reason, the charging unit now has a choice: it can either attempt to complete the charge against the now-fleeing (or destroyed) unit, or try to redirect its charge by making a Leadership test. If the test is failed, the charging unit must attempt to complete the charge against its original target. If the test is passed, however, the charging unit can declare a fresh charge against another viable target (the charged unit may declare a charge reaction as normal). If this second unit also flees, you can instead choose to charge the original fleeing unit. If there are no other suitable targets to charge, a charging unit cannot redirect. Each unit can only make one redirect per turn.

Fleeing Off the Battlefield(Main Rulebook, p. 23)

If a fleeing unit touches the edge of the battlefield (or indeed has spilled over it), the entire unit is removed from play and counts as destroyed. We assume that having fled so far from the battle, the remaining troops scatter, regrouping only after the battle is over.

Charging More Than One Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 23)

A unit can normally only declare a charge at a single enemy unit. However, if there is no way at all of completing the charge against an enemy unit without touching another (sometimes known as 'clipping') then the charging unit must also declare a charge against the other unit(s). Each target unit must declare and resolve its own charge reaction (in the order chosen by their controlling player). As normal, any units that do not declare charge reactions are assumed to hold.

Multiple Charge Reactions(Main Rulebook, p. 23)

A unit might well be called upon to make several charge reactions over the course of a Charge sub-phase, if it is charged by several enemy units.

A unit can only Stand and Shoot once in a Charge sub-phase – there is no time to reload. This is not to say that the Stand and Shoot must be used against the first charging unit – the charged unit can opt to Hold against the first charge and Stand and Shoot against the second charge. It could even then elect to Flee in reaction to a third charge if it wished! A unit that Flees once in a Charge sub-phase will have to keep fleeing if it has more charges declared against it, as described earlier.

Once a unit has declared a Flee charge reaction, or if it is already fleeing at the start of the movement phase, it must declare and resolve a Flee charge reaction for every subsequent charge declared against it that turn. Note that a unit may only make an actual Flee move once per phase.

Roll Charge Range and Move Chargers(Main Rulebook, p. 23)

With all the charge reactions declared and resolved, it's time to see whether or not the charges were successful! There are many factors that can prevent a charge hitting home. The unit might become disordered as it surges forward, with warriors jostling one another in their haste to reach the prey. Perhaps the charging unit is simply unwilling to close with the enemy, and therefore hesitant in their advance. Or it may simply be a loss of momentum as the chargers tire more quickly than it was believed that they would.

Work through the charges one at a time, in any order decided by the player whose turn it is, calculating the charge distance for each and resolving the resultant successful or failed charge before moving on to the next unit (the only exception is when several units charge a single target).

Calculating Charge Range(Main Rulebook, p. 23)

A unit's charge range is equal to its Movement value plus 2D6 (where you pick the highest score rolled). If the charge range is equal to or greater than the distance to the enemy unit, the charge is successful. If the charge range is less than the distance to the enemy, the charge is failed.

The charge range of a unit is based on its Move value – a faster unit can charge further than a slow unit, as is entirely sensible. That said, it is only right that units can charge further than their Move value, as we're assuming them to be going all-out in order to get to grips with the foe. To represent this, as well as the caprices of fate, a unit's charge range is the sum of its Move value and a 2D6 roll (where you pick the highest score rolled) in inches. For example, a unit with Movement 4 rolls a 2 and 5 for its charge distance, meaning it can charge up to 9" this turn. This can make charges somewhat uncertain at greater distances – just as they would be in real life.

With the unit's charge range established, measure the distance between the charging unit and its target unit at their closest points in an uninterrupted line between them. If the distance is greater than the charge range, then the charging unit realises that if has insufficient momentum to reach the enemy and instead makes what we call a failed charge. If the distance is less than or equal to the charge range, then the charging unit has reached the enemy and makes a successful charge.

If you're charging several enemy units, remember that the rolled charge distance must be sufficient to reach both units, otherwise the charge can only be resolved against those units within range.

Failed Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 24)

A unit that makes a failed charge moves directly towards its target a number of inches equal to the dice result rolled for the charge.

A unit that makes a failed charge has started towards the enemy, but soon realises that it is impossible to cover the distance. The warriors in the unit lose impetus as the enthusiasm for the charge peters out.

If a unit makes a failed charge it moves directly towards the target a distance equal to the highest score result rolled on the charge roll (i.e. if the dice showed 2 and 5, the failed charge move would be 5"), wheeling around impassable terrain and units, both friends and enemies, by the shortest route.

The blue unit has declared a charge against the red unit. The blue unit's normal move is 4", and it manages a roll of 3, for a total charge range of 7". However, the red unit is 8" away — the charge has failed. The blue unit must now move 3" (the highest result of the two dice they rolled), wheeling to face directly towards the red unit.

Move Chargers(Main Rulebook, p. 24)

Successful chargers now move into base contact with the enemy. They move directly forward, but are permitted one wheel of up to 90° as they move, and another of unlimited arc once in contact. As many models as possible from the two units must be brought into base contact.

If your charge range was sufficient, it's time to complete the charge and move into base contact with the enemy. A charging unit can move an unlimited amount – it's already been found to be within charge range.

The charge move is subject to an important restriction: the unit must move straight ahead, except that, during this move, it may make a single wheel of up to 90°. You are free to make this wheel in order to place your unit wherever you like against the facing of the enemy unit that is being charged, but remember that you must bring as many models into base contact with the enemy as possible, from both sides. Therefore, this wheel cannot be used to reduce the number of models in base contact, unless of course you have no choice, and you need to wheel for the unit to avoid intervening units and impassable terrain in order to complete the charge.

It's important to note that a unit can move to within 1" of another unit when charging – not just the one that it is charging – this is the only time that this is normally allowed.

Aligning to the Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 25)

On most occasions, moving the chargers in the manner described above will leave the charging unit and the target unit in base contact at a peculiar angle with a gap in between. Of course, what would happen in a real battle is that the warriors of the two units would quickly move to attack their enemies and, in so doing, close the gap – so this is exactly what we do in Warhammer.

Once the charging unit contacts the enemy unit, it must perform a second, bonus wheel if required to bring its front facing into full contact with the facing of the enemy unit that has been charged, maximising the number of models in base contact on both sides.

The only exception to the charger aligning to the target is if a unit with less than Unit Strength 5 is charged by a unit with Unit Strength 10 or more. In this case, the charged unit will align to the charging unit, rather than the other way around.

1. Declare Charge.
2. Wheel to maximize models in contact.
3. Move in.
4. Close the door.

Flank and Rear Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 26)

Sometimes you may find that your models are able to charge an enemy unit in the flank or rear. This is particularly good because an attack from an unexpected direction gives you an advantage in combat.

A charging unit's position when the charge is declared determines whether it charges into the front, flank or rear of the enemy unit. If the charging unit is in the target's frontal zone when the charge is declared then it charges into the front.

As units generally begin the game facing each other, this is the most common situation that will arise. However, if the charging unit comes from the flank zone, it charges into the side; if in the rear zone, it charges into the rear. Whether a charger is in the front, flank or rear of its intended target is determined before charges are declared, so make sure you check before charge reactions are declared.

If a charging unit straddles two zones, then the unit is considered to be in the zone where the majority of the models in its front rank are. If there is no clear majority, roll a dice.

In case the charged unit's position were to change as a result of a charge reaction, check to see which arc the charging unit is in before moving the unit accordingly.

1. This unit is wholly within the blue unit's forward arc, so charge the front of the enemy unit. 2. In this unit, three out of the five models in the front rank are in the blue unit's flank, so the unit charges into the flank. 3. The majority of the models in this unit are in the rear arc of the blue unit, so they make a rear charge. 4. In this case it is hard to tell where the majority of the front rank lies, so it is best to roll a dice to decide between a flank and rear charge.

Unusual Situations(Main Rulebook, p. 27)

Sometimes a charging unit can move into contact with its target, but cannot close the door because something else lies in the way, normally another unit or a piece of terrain. Where this happens, the charging player should attempt to complete the charge in such a manner as to avoid the obstruction. This can normally be achieved by increasing or decreasing the amount the charging unit wheels as it moves, or changing how the charging unit closes the door. In some cases the enemy unit might have to close the door with the chargers instead. If no amount of finagling can allow the unit to avoid the obstacle, the charge fails.

There is one important principle that you should always keep in mind when charging: under no circumstances can a unit use its charge move to move into contact with an enemy it has not declared a charge against.

1. The red unit declares a charge.
2. It wheels to maximise and avoid terrain.
3. It moves into contact with the enemy.
4. The charging unit cannot close the door, because a rock is in the way, so the blue unit does instead.

Charging a Fleeing Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 28)

If, for whatever reason, one or more units completes a charge against a fleeing enemy, move the charging unit(s) into contact with the fleeing enemy as described earlier and then the fleeing unit is run down by the chargers. Much of the unit is hacked apart or trampled to death, and the survivors head for the hills.

The fleeing unit suffers two Wounds with no saves of any kind allowed for each point of Unit Strength the charging unit(s) has. For example, a unit with Unit Strength 10 will inflict 20 Wounds on the enemy unit. If any models survive, the charging unit then stops 1" behind the remains of the unit.

A charging unit that destroys fleeing troops in this way will often find itself pulled out of position and vulnerable to enemy counter-charges. Accordingly, we allow the charging unit to attempt a reform by passing a Leadership test. If the test is failed, the troops are so overcome with hacking at the fallen corpses that they do not have the chance to reform. If the test is passed, the unit immediately makes a reform manoeuvre. In either case, the unit cannot move further during this Movement phase.

Multiple Charges on a Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 28)

If several units have declared a charge against a single unit, then roll the charge distance of these units at the same time. The charge moves of the charging units must be made as far as possible to equalise the number of models fighting from each charging unit.

Remember, however, that your primary goal is always to maximise the number of models fighting – it is acceptable to have more models fighting from one unit than from another, if to do otherwise would reduce the overall number of models fighting.

If multiple units have declared a charge against a unit that has chosen a Flee Charge response, they can all redirect their charge if there is another viable target in range. The controlling player chooses in which order to move their charging units.

On occasion, exceptional dice rolls from charging units might mean that more units can complete the charge than can fit in base contact with the target. When this happens, the controlling player of the charging units must nominate which units complete the charge. Those units that cannot complete the charge against the target are counted as having made a failed charge.

1. Both red units have declared charges against the blue unit, and have rolled sufficiently high to complete their charges successfully.
2. The red player must now use the free wheel and alignment moves to bring an equal number of models from both his units (or as near as possible) into contact with the blue unit.

Compulsory Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 29)

Generally speaking, a player can move their units however they wish within the confines of the rules governing movement. However, sometimes troops go out of control for some reason, either because they are overcome by sheer terror, because they are compelled by magic, or because they are disorientated (or just not very bright to begin with). The player has no control over the movement of such troops and so these are referred to as compulsory moves.

All compulsory movement is carried out after charges have been resolved, but before other movement takes place.

Fleeing is the most common type of compulsory move - only the luckiest general will not have to witness the unhappy spectacle of their own troops attempting to escape the battle. You must resolve the actions of any fleeing troops before those of other compulsory moves. Fortunately, you have a chance to rally them.

Rally Fleeing Units(Main Rulebook, p. 29)

The player takes Leadership tests for each fleeing unit they have. If the test is passed, the unit stops fleeing and immediately reforms. A unit that has 25% or less of its starting models left have their Leadership halved (rounded up).

Battlefields are grim and deadly places, where the threat of death (or a fate worse than death!) forever lurks. As the game goes on, some of your warriors will inevitably lose heart or be terrified out of their wits by the unremitting carnage all around them. It is a fortunate general who can rely on their men to press on through thick and thin, no matter what horrors the day brings. All too often, warriors will break from the fight and flee the battle, electing for a chance of survival over martial duty. Fortunately for you, you are allowed a chance to whip some discipline into these cowardly curs and get them back into the fight, where they belong.

During the Compulsory Moves sub-phase, the player picks any one of their fleeing units and tests to rally it (as explained below). They then proceed to the next fleeing unit and attempts to rally it, and so on, in any order they wish, until all units that are able to make a rally attempt have done so.

If the unit started to flee in this turn it cannot attempt to rally the same turn – there's too much momentum built up already!

A unit attempts to rally by taking a Leadership test. If the fleeing unit has been reduced in size to a quarter (25%) or less of the number of models with which it began the game, its Leadership value is halved (after any other modifiers, special rule or abilities are applied, rounded up), as the survivors are too demoralised to give all but the scantest consideration to rallying.

If the Rally test is failed the unit continues to flee.

If the Rally test is successful, the unit stops fleeing. Order is restored as chieftains, champions and leaders bash a few heads together, or manage to bellow a few well-chosen motivational words (or bare-faced threats) over the thunder of running feet Whilst the unit is not yet ready to rejoin the fight, it will be able to make some very basic manoeuvres and will be fully fighting fit in time for your next turn. You may like to mark freshly rallied units with a coin or counter of some description, so you don't get them confused with other troops.

A unit that has successfully rallied immediately makes a reform manoeuvre, so that the controlling player can at least get their troops pointed towards the enemy again, rather than the wild blue yonder. A rallied unit cannot perform further actions during the Movement phase, and loses its opportunity to make a shooting attack in the Shooting phase, as the troops are too busy reorganising themselves after their headlong flight. Note that a rallied unit can cast spells as normal.

Move Fleeing Units(Main Rulebook, p. 30)

Any units that do not rally must immediately flee 2D6" in the direction they are facing. Every model that flees through an enemy unit or impassable terrain are at risk taking damage.

If, despite the player's best efforts, a unit continues to flee, it will continue its headlong flight for safety, moving 2D6" straight ahead in the direction it is facing. Some particularly swift units flee faster, but we'll discuss those later on.

As fleeing troops are assumed to have broken formation, they ignore obstacles of any kind as they retreat. Fleeing troops move through other units (friend or foe) and impassable terrain, as they are assumed to run around the obstruction, or force their way through, fuelled as they are by sheer desperation. If the flee move would result in the fleeing unit ending up 'on top' of or within 1" of another unit or impassable terrain, then it carries on fleeing straight forward until it is past the obstruction, and will then halt.

Fleeing through enemies or impassable terrain is not without its dangers. Enemies may be quick-witted enough to capture or slay several of the fleeing troops as they run past, while the sheer drops, deep water and dense undergrowth of impassable terrain present all kinds of hazards to a warrior more concerned about what they are running from than what they are running into.

Accordingly, each fleeing model must pass a Dangerous Terrain test for each area of impassable terrain that it flees through. More information on Dangerous Terrain tests and impassable terrain can be found in the Battlefield Terrain chapter.

If the unit flees through a non-fleeing enemy unit, it will suffer one automatic Wound for each point of Unit Strength that the enemy unit(s) has, with no saves of any kind allowed.

As the blue unit is fleeing through the impassable terrain, any fleeing models that move through it (marked here in white) must take a Dangerous Terrain test. Two fail and are removed as casualties.

There are consequences for a unit fleeing through friends as well – having allies stream past you in a panicked state is not conducive to maintaining your confidence in victory, after all! Any unit that has friends flee through it must take a Panic test, as described in the Panic chapter, as soon as the fleeing unit has completed its move.

As soon as a fleeing unit moves into base contact with the battlefield edge, it flees the battle and does not return – we assume that its warriors scatter to the four winds. Such a unit counts as destroyed to all intents and, more importantly, all rules purposes.

Scenario

Damage/Effect

Flee Through Impassable Terrain

Models passing through the terrain must take Dangerous Terrain test.

Flee Through Enemy Unit

Fleeing unit suffers wounds equal to the enemy Unit Strength, with no saves of any kind.

Flee Through Friendly Unit

Friendly unit must take a Panic test if the fleeing unit is Unit Strength 10 or higher.

Move into Base Contact with Table Edge

Fleeing unit is removed entirely as casualties.

Caught by Pursuers/Chargers

Fleeing unit suffers wounds equal to double the enemy Unit Strength, with no saves of any kind.

Other Compulsory Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 30)

Aside from fleeing troops, units that are forced to move in the Compulsory Moves sub-phase otherwise follow the normal movement rules, unless clearly stated. Any further rules that apply to units that have a compulsory move will be described in their entry in the relevant army book, for example, they will often have to move at a set speed or in a given direction. These compulsory moves can be resolved in any order the controlling player wishes, providing that all Flee moves have already been completed.

Remaining Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

With all your charges and compulsory moves attended to, you can now move the rest of your army. While it might lack the drama of the charge, the remaining moves sub-phase is no less important. It is here that you'll manoeuvre your units in order to set up your own charges of future turns, as well as attempt to deny future charges your opponent will wish to make. Remaining moves can also be used to manoeuvre missile troops and wizards so that they have suitable targets, seize important areas of the battlefield, and so on...

Moving Your Units(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

During the Remaining Moves sub-phase, units that did not charge, flee, rally or compulsorily move this Movement phase, and which are not engaged in combat, can now move and perform manoeuvres.

The player picks one of their units and moves it a distance up to the unit's Move value (M) in inches. Once the chosen unit has finished its movement, the player can pick and move another unit, until all the eligible units the player wishes to move have done so.

Moving Backwards(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

Units can not only move forward, they can also move backwards. Moving backwards is a tricky proposition, and warriors tend to shuffle carefully rather than stride purposefully when moving backwards. To represent this, a unit that moves backwards moves at half rate, i.e. it counts the distance moved as being double what it actually is.

Moving Sideways(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

To get a body of warriors to move to either flank is no small challenge, especially if you want to maintain a viable fighting formation (as you do). To represent this, a unit that moves sideways moves at half rate, i.e. it counts the distance moved as being double what it actually is.

Units may not mix forward, backward and/or sideways movement as part of the same move. Remember that units can only wheel when moving forwards.

Marching(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

Troops can move at double speed. If they start their move within 8" of an enemy, they must pass a Leadership test to do so.

Marching at the double allows troops that are away from the heart of the battle to move more rapidly. This represents the swift movement of reserves to a critical area by means of a rapid march and helps to ensure that units do not get stranded away from the fighting.

Marching troops move at twice their normal Movement rate, with weapons sheathed or shouldered. They are literally 'going at the double'. A unit on the march is not permitted to reform, as this would disrupt its movement, nor is it allowed to move backwards or to the side. It can wheel as normal, as you might imagine a column of troops would in order to follow a road, for example.

It's also worth noting that a unit that has marched in the Movement phase cannot shoot missile weapons during the Shooting phase, so think carefully before you commit your missile troops to a march.

Nearby Enemies

A unit that is on the march is not prepared for combat, so troops are reluctant to march whilst a potentially threatening enemy is nearby. If you wish a unit to march when a non-fleeing enemy unit is within 8", it will first have to take a Leadership test. If the test is passed, the unit disregards the nearby foe and marches as ordered. If the test is failed, the unit refuses to march and will only be able to move normally. Note that if a unit attempts at this test and fails, it is still treated as having marched, even if its controlling player then elects not to have the unit move at all.

Lone Models and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

Units that consist of a single model, such as monsters, lone characters or sole survivors of annihilated units, are mostly moved the same as other units.

They move, wheel and march just like a larger unit. The one exception is that a single model (except Chariots, see Troop Types) can pivot on the spot as many times as it wishes over the course of its move. It can do so without penalty and so pivoting does not prevent models from marching, or even from shooting later in the turn. This represents the greater freedom of movement that an individual creature enjoys over its fellows in a ranked-up and disciplined unit – although a lone model that pivots on the spot does count as moving for the purposes of shooting and so on.

On some occasions, notably when charging, a lone model has to perform a wheel (when charging, a lone model must follow the normal charge rules, which do not allow pivots, only one wheel whilst moving, and another to 'close the door'). In this case, wheel from one of the front corners as you would for other units.

Moving Off the Board(Main Rulebook, p. 31)

Except in the case of fleeing troops (as discussed earlier) and pursuing troops (see the Close Combat Phase) units are not permitted to move off the board.

However, a unit next to the board edge may still pivot or wheel even if this would temporarily take some of it over the board edge, as long as it does not end its movement over the board edge.

Reinforcements(Main Rulebook, p. 32)

Sometimes the rules will call for a unit to enter the battle. Where this happens, we refer to the unit entering play as reinforcements.

Units that enter the battle (also referred to as moving onto the board) as reinforcements are placed in base contact with the board edge (upon which board edge, and where, will depend upon the rule that triggers the reinforcements) facing directly towards the battlefield and with all of its rear rank touching the battlefield edge.

A unit that enters as reinforcements cannot charge, as it has missed its opportunity to declare charges, and may not march, but can otherwise participate in the game normally. It's worth bearing in mind that the unit counts as having moved for the purposes of shooting.

In addition, all the models in the unit must be set up so that they are within twice their Movement rate of the battlefield edge that they entered from.

Movement Summary Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 32)

Below can be found a summary chart of various types of Movement rules found throughout the game.

Movement Type

Distance Moved

Normal

Movement

Marching

Movement x 2

Charging

Movement + 2D6 (choose highest)

Failed Charge

2D6 (choose highest)

Fleeing

2D6

Pursuing

2D6

Some models have the Swiftstride special rule, which allows them to move at faster when charging, fleeing and pursing:

Movement Type

Swiftstride M6 or lower

Swiftstride M7 or more

Charging

Movement + 2D6

Movement + 3D6 (discard the lowest)

Failed Charge

2D6

3D6 (discard the lowest)

Fleeing

2D6

3D6 (discard the lowest)

Pursuing

2D6

3D6 (discard the lowest)

Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 33)

The Warhammer world is an intrinsically magical place, where mystical energy infuses the very land itself. In battle, magic is a force as real and potent as a sword blade. The battlefield use of magic is limited only by the imagination and skill of the Wizard that wields it. Magic can be a subtle force, infusing allies with strength and valour, and enemies with frailty and dread. More commonly though, wizards unshackle the raw power that is at the heart of magic's chaotic nature, summoning hungry firestorms or devastating bolts of eldritch power.

With the Movement phase completed, it's time for your Wizards to unleash their powerful sorceries. You'll find that the Magic phase taps into some of the rules detailed later in the book, so if you're not yet familiar with much of Warhammer be prepared to do a little flicking back and forth as you read through this section. As with everything in Warhammer, the more you play, the more you'll remember without having to constantly refer to the rulebook.

Wizards(Main Rulebook, p. 33)

Models that can cast spells are known collectively as Wizards, although specific armies might use other terms.

Before we get into discussing the Magic phase proper, it's worth taking a little time to introduce the idea of Wizards and their spells. Only beings that possess awesome mental might can even hope to bend the powers of magic to their will. Lesser persons would be consumed in an instant, their souls torn apart by unfettered energies or devoured by cackling Daemons. Even the most accomplished of sorcerers walk a narrow path at the edge of sanity, between ultimate power and total annihilation. In Warhammer, we commonly refer to a model able to cast spells as a Wizard. Some races use different terms, such as sorcerer, shaman or seer, but all of these and others are considered to be types of Wizard.

Wizard Level(Main Rulebook, p. 33)

Wizards have a level from 1 to 4. The higher a Wizard's level, the more powerful they are.

Naturally, not all Wizards are equals – mastery of magic increases through dedicated practice. As one might expect, a thousand-year-old High Elf mage will likely have more magical power in their little finger than an upstart acolyte of one of the Imperial Colleges of Magic has in their entire body.

The higher a model's Wizard level, the more accomplished a spellcaster they are. A higher-level Wizard will know more spells than a lower-level Wizard. Similarly, they are able to put more power behind their spells and receive higher bonuses when attempting to cast them, as well as channel more power. There are four Wizard levels, each more powerful and learned than the next. If you're unsure what level any of your Wizards are, refer to the relevant Warhammer Armies book for details.

Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 33)

Each Wizard knows a number of spells equal to their level, chosen at the start of each battle.

In the Magic phase your Wizards unleash their magical power in the form of spells. Spells can be terribly destructive or powerfully protective, or might confer special abilities of some form.

Wizards are assumed to know dozens of different spells, or even hundreds, from complicated time-consuming rituals to party tricks, charms and minor alchemies. However, when it comes to a battle only a limited selection of magic is of any value.

Each Wizard knows a number of spells equal to their level, chosen at the start of each battle, before deployment starts. Some powerful Wizards have more, but this is the exception to the rule.

If a Wizard loses one or more Wizard levels, they instantly forgets a single spell for each Wizard level lost, chosen at random from those they know.

A model can lose Wizard levels granted by a magic item. Bound Spells cannot be forgotten if a Wizard loses a Wizard level. If a model has loses a Wizard level and has a selection of ‘normal’ and bound spells, do not include the bound spells when randomising which are forgotten.

If a Wizard has had their level reduced to 0 they no longer counts as a Wizard and cannot attempt to channel Power and Dispel dice. They can no longer cast any spells, except for any Bound spells they might still have.

Choosing Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 34)

Before you deploy your Wizards, you need to determine which spells they know. When you chose your army, you must also select which Lore of Magic each of your Wizards is going to use. This will sometimes be one of the Lores of Battle Magic – the eight most commonly used sorcerous disciplines included in this rulebook, but many Wizards have race-specific spell lores to choose from as well, as described in the appropriate Warhammer Armies book.

The spells a Wizard knows are determined by their Wizard Level and consulting the Lore of Magic in question. This is done openly, so both you and your opponent will be aware of the spells each Wizard has chosen. If your army includes more than one Wizard, you can choose the order in which you choose their spells.

Regardless of the Lore of Magic your Wizard has chosen to use, you'll notice that the spells are numbered between 1 and 6, with 1 generally being easier to cast, and 6 being more powerful and more difficult to cast. Only true masters of magic can cast these higher ranking spells, which requires a higher Wizard Level.

To determine the Wizard's spells, consult the chosen lore and the table below to see what spells are available to each Wizard, then choose the spells you want for your Wizard.

Wizard LevelSpell Level
11-3
21-4
31-5
41-6

Ordinarily, each spell can only be known once in the same army. If you have more than one Wizard using the same Lore, you must choose different spells for them. The only exceptions are:

  • If it is a Signature Spell.

  • If a model has no choice over which spell(s) it knows, either because it is fixed by the model's rules, or because it has 'bought' a specific spell as part of army selection (such as Bound Spells).

  • If the army book or spell lore clearly states that a model can exchange another spell for the spell in question.

  • If all the spells from the same lore are already used by other wizards in the army. Note that in this case, you must distribute any duplicate spells out as evenly as possibly between your wizards.

Signature Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 34)

Most Lores of Magic have Signature spells. A signature spell is so intrinsic to the lore's character that we can assume that any practitioner of that lore will know how to cast it.

Regardless of a Wizard's Level, they always know the Signature spell of a lore in addition to any other spells they have chosen – even if another Wizard in the same army already knows the Signature spell.

If a Wizard can take spells from multiple lores, they may at most have two different Signature Spells in total. You may choose which lore you pick those Signature Spells from as normal.

Note that Wizards that do not get to choose their spells, either due to knowing only a few specific spells or having them as Bound Spells, do not get the Signature spell from the Lore(s) they are using.

It's worth making a note on your army roster – it's all too easy to forget which Wizard has exactly which spells otherwise!

Lore Attribute(Main Rulebook, p. 34)

Most Lores of Magic have something called a 'lore attribute'. This is essentially a grouping of one or more special rules that are applied to certain spells for that lore. A lore attribute might give certain spells an extra effect against a particular troop type, or alter the way a spell behaves. Regardless of the detail, a lore attribute only has an effect on spells from its own lore.

The Magic Phase Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 35)

Now we've established the basic principles of Wizards and their spells, it's time to dive into the Magic phase. The Magic phase starts with both sides determining how much magical power can be tapped into this turn. The player whose turn it is (the casting player) will be seeking to draw down enough power to cast their spells, whilst their opponent (the dispelling player) will be gathering magical energy to dispel any spells being cast.

Magic Summary

  1. Roll for the Winds of Magic
    The Winds of Magic are generated by rolling a number of dice depending on the amount of points played. The strength of the Winds of Magic will determine how many power dice the casting player has, as well as how many dispel dice the dispelling player has.

  2. Cast
    One of the casting player's Wizards now picks a target and attempts to cast a spell, using power dice.

  3. Dispel
    If the spell was cast, one of the dispelling player's Wizards can now attempt to counter the spell using dispel dice. If the dispelling player does not have any Wizards, a dispel can still be attempted.

  4. Spell Resolution
    Assuming the spell has been cast and not dispelled its effect is now applied.

  5. Next Spell
    Repeat steps 2 through 4 until the casting player cannot cast, or no longer wishes to cast, any more spells.

Roll for the Winds of Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

Roll 2D6 to determine the strength of the Winds of Magic.

At the start of each Magic phase, the casting player determines the strength of the Winds of Magic by rolling 2D6. This number is increased for each 2000 points you increase the game size with after 2000 points, so at 4000 points you roll 4D6, at 6000 points you roll 6D6 and so on.

The Power Pool(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

The amount of power available to the casting player is equal to the total rolled for the Winds of Magic.

Take a number of dice equal to the Winds of Magic roll and make up a 'pool' of power dice to represent this reservoir of power. When a Wizard casts a spell, they take a number of dice from the power pool in order to make the attempt. Accordingly, each time a spell is cast, the power pool will shrink a little, thus limiting the number of spells the casting player can attempt each Magic phase.

Channeling Power Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

Whilst a Wizard cannot control the amount of power present in the Winds of Magic, they may be able to channel what power there is and make it go further. To represent this, the casting player rolls a D6 for each Wizard level in their army. For each result of 5 or 6, the Wizard has been able to siphon a little more power from the Winds of Magic – they generate another power dice, which is immediately added to the power pool. Fleeing Wizards and Wizards that are not on the battlefield (for whatever reason) are not able to channel. Fleeing Wizards are considered to be too busy to attempt to channel, whilst absent Wizards are too far away to contribute.

The Dispel Pool(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

The dispelling player gets a number of dispel dice equal to the highest D6 roll of the two Winds of Magic dice.

With the power pool determined, the dispelling player now determines what resources they have at their disposal with which to counter their enemy's spells. By its very nature, disrupting magic energy is far more difficult than harnessing it, so a player's dispel pool will almost always be smaller than their opposite number's power pool. The number of dispel dice available to the dispelling player is equal to the highest D6 rolled for the Winds of Magic.

So, for example, if the Winds of Magic dice are rolled and show a 2 and a 6, the casting player will get 8 power dice (the total) and the dispelling player will get 6 dispel dice (the highest value shown). These dice are then placed in a dispel 'pool' in a similar manner to power dice. Each time a Wizard attempts a dispel, they take dice from the dispel pool to do so.

The same principle applies in games of 4000 pts or more, where the dispelling player receives +D6 dispel dice to their dispel pool for every +2000 points played. Note that the dispel dice added are always equal to the top half results of the dice rolled. For example, if 4 Winds of Magic dice are rolled and show a 2, 3, 5 and 6 respectively, the casting player gets a total of 16 (2+3+5+6) power dice, and the dispelling player gets 11 (5+6) dispel dice.

Channeling Dispel Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

Extra dispel dice can be generated in a similar way as power dice. The dispelling player's Wizards can now attempt to channel further dispel dice into their pool. Roll a D6 for each Wizard level in their army. For each roll of a 6, add an extra dispel dice to the pool. Again, as when channelling power dice, fleeing Wizards and Wizards not present on the battlefield cannot attempt to channel dispel dice.

Cast(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

The casting player's Wizards can attempt to cast each of their spells once during each Magic phase, provided they have enough power.

Each Wizard can only attempt to cast each spell once per turn (if they have a Magic Item capable of casting that spell as a bound spell, can they still use it to cast the same spell again). Wizards cannot try to cast spells if they are fleeing or not on the battlefield.

To cast a spell, a Wizard nominates one of their spells to cast, and declares the target of the spell. Before choosing, it's worth examining the rules of the spell to determine its maximum range – remember that you can normally measure to see if a target is in range before you try to cast a spell. Spells also have targeting limitations, as we'll discuss now.

Spell Types(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

Some spells have a type that enforces additional casting restrictions, or waives others. There are five distinct types of spell: augment, direct damage, hex, magic missile and magical vortex. Some unique spells do not have a type – their text will contain any casting restrictions that apply.

Note that all damage from spells counts as non-physical Magical Attacks (as described in the Special Rules section).

Direct Damage(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

These spells are deadly attacks that strike the foe without warning. The following applies to direct damage spells:

  • The target must be an enemy unit.

  • The target must lie within the Wizard's forward arc.

  • The Wizard does not need line of sight to their target.

  • The target must be within the spell's range.

  • Wizards cannot target spells at units engaged in close combat.

Sometimes a direct damage spell will use a template to determine which models are hit. When this happens, the template cannot be placed in such a way that it touches friendly units or enemy units that are in close combat – this is not to say that the template won't scatter onto friends later, depending on the spell. Ranged direct damage spells that use a template have to target an enemy unit by placing the template over the target enemy unit. When targeting a unit with a small or large round template, the hole in the centre must be placed over an enemy model, but only the hole of the template must be within range.

Magic Missiles(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

These are sorcerous projectiles that the Wizard hurls at their foe. The following applies to magic missiles:

  • The target must be an enemy unit.

  • The target must lie within the Wizard's forward arc.

  • The Wizard needs line of sight to their target.

  • The target must be within the spell's range.

  • Wizards cannot target spells at units engaged in close combat.

  • Wizards cannot cast magic missiles if they are engaged in close combat.

  • Magic missiles always hit their target automatically.

Augment Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

These empower the caster's allies, protecting them with sorcerous wards and magically enhancing their fighting prowess. The following applies to augment spells:

  • The target must be a friendly unit.

  • The target does not have to be within the Wizard's forward arc.

  • The Wizard does not need line of sight to their target.

  • The target must be within the spell's range.

  • Wizards can target spells at units engaged in close combat.

If a Wizard casts a spell that targets them and the unit they are with and then leaves the unit, it will only target them. If they subsequently join another unit, or rejoins the unit they have left, while the spell is still in play then they will benefit from the spell.

Hex Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

These are the counterpoint to augment spells, weakening the enemy and making them easier to slay. The following applies to hexes:

  • The target must be an enemy unit.

  • The target does not have to be within the Wizard's forward arc.

  • The Wizard does not need line of sight to their target.

  • The target must be within the spell's range.

  • Wizards can target spells at units engaged in close combat.

Note that bonuses and penalties from Hex, Augment and other spells are cumulative, but normally cannot take any characteristics above 10 or below 1 unless specified.

Magical Vortexes(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

These are roiling globes of magical energy that travel across the battlefield, wreaking all kinds of unusual (and often deadly) effects. The following applies to magical vortexes:

  • They do not have a target.

  • They must be placed in the caster's front arc.

  • They may not be used in such a way that they affect any friendly models or models engaged in close combat when initially cast.

  • Models cannot choose to voluntarily move into/through a magical vortex.

A magical vortex uses one of the round templates, which is placed in base contact with the caster and with its centre within the caster's front arc, and then moves as described in the spell.

Unlike most other spells and other gaming effects that use templates in Warhammer, magical vortexes remain on the battlefield (unless they move off it). At the end of every subsequent Magic phase, each magical vortex moves in the direction and distance stated in the spell. If a magical vortex ever ends its move over a unit, place it 1" beyond the unit in the direction it was moving. If this is also over a unit it should be placed 1" beyond that unit, repeating the process until it is no longer touching any models. When this happens, models between where the magical vortex ended its move and where the template is placed are not affected by the spell.

Models that are forced to move into or through a magical vortex for any reason suffers the full effects of the spell as soon as the unit makes contact with the Magical Vortex (in the case of a spell that affects all models hit, every model whose base would pass into/through the vortex is affected by the spell). Surviving models are then placed 1" beyond the template and their movement ends.

Magical vortexes are always remains in play spells (see spell resolution).

Choose Number of Power Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Once the Wizard, spell and target have been chosen, the player then declares how many power dice from their pool the Wizard will use in their attempt to cast the spell. At least one dice must be taken from the power pool. The number of dice each Wizard can use to cast each spell is determined by their Wizard Level+2. So, a Level 3 Wizard could use a maximum of 5 dice on each spell.

Casting Value(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

For a spell to be cast, the total of the dice rolled, must equal or beat the spell's casting value.

The chosen dice are then taken from the casting player's power pool and rolled. The results are then added together, to give a casting result. Keep the dice in front of you for the moment – you'll need the scores if your opponent attempts a dispel, as we'll discuss later.

Each spell has an associated casting value, any number from 3 upwards. Spells with a higher casting value have greater effect, but require more power.

If the casting result equals or exceeds the spell's casting value, the spell is cast (though it may be subsequently dispelled and neutralised by the opposing player, as we'll discuss later).

If the result is less than the casting value, the casting attempt has failed. The spell is not cast.

Casting Bonuses(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

When casting a spell, there are many sources of casting bonuses that add to the casting value, making it easier to succeed in casting the spell, as well as making it harder to dispel for your opponent.

The most common casting bonus is given by the Wizard itself, and is equal to the Wizard's level divided by half. So a Level 1 and 2 Wizard gains a +1 bonus, whereas a Level 3 and 4 Wizard gains a +2 bonus.

Other casting bonuses can come from magic items, special rules, units or terrain. Note that for whatever reason, no casting attempt may have more than a +5 casting bonus in total.

Boosted Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Some spells allow the Wizard the option to focus more magical force into their casting, thus extending the effective range, amount of damage caused or area of effect. Where this is an option, it is clearly stated in the spell's effect, as is the extra casting cost required to achieve the additional effect.

If you roll high enough so that the casting value of the boosted version of the spell is reached, you may choose whether or not you want to cast the standard or boosted version of the spell.

Not Enough Power(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

No matter how powerful a Wizard might be, they cannot cast a spell where the total of the natural dice scores is less than 3. A dice total of 1 or 2 is always considered to be a failure, despite the level of the Wizard. This is true regardless of any bonuses, from any source. Even the mightiest and most learned Wizard needs to coax a certain amount of raw power out of the Winds of Magic in order to cast a spell.

Broken Concentration(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

If the total of the natural dice scores is 1 or 2, not only is the spell not cast, but the Wizard breaks their concentration and is unable to cast spells for the rest of the Magic phase.

Ultimate Power(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

For every natural 6 rolled when casting a spell, you automatically have to roll an additional 'free' power dice to boost the casting value even further. Note that any 6's rolled on these additional dice do not count towards Ultimate Power. These additional power dice are not deducted from the army's power pool, nor are they limited by Wizard level.

Miscasts(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

If two or more unmodified 1's are rolled when casting a spell, it has been Miscast. The Wizard has to roll on the Miscast table when the spell has been resolved or dispelled.

When seeing if a miscast has occurred, always use the actual dice scores, irrespective of bonuses from special rules or magic items. If a Wizard is called upon to re-roll the dice for any reason, it is the second result that stands, as is normal for a re-roll.

All dice rolled count towards miscasts, regardless of whether the dice were power pool dice, or granted as a bonus from Ultimate Power, a special rule or magic item.

When a miscast occurs, the wildly arcing magic inevitably proves dangerous to the Wizard and to anyone nearby. Naturally, the Wizard will do his best to contain the uncontrollable energy, but success is by no means guaranteed – this is what we refer to in rules terms as a Miscast.

After dispelling or resolving the effect of the spell, the Wizard needs to roll a D6 on the Miscast table to see what happens to them.

The more power the Wizard used to cast the spell, the more dangerous the effects of the Miscast is likely to be. Add the total number of dice used to cast the spell (including those from Ultimate Power etc.) to the number rolled on the D6 and consult the Miscast table below. So, if a wizard used 4 dice when miscasting, and rolls a 3 on the D6, the result would be 7 on the Miscast table.

Miscast Table(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

2-3

Loss of Power. Through a combination of luck and skill, the Wizard manages to dissipate most of the spell's excess energy, leaving them with a splitting headache.

The Wizard cannot attempt to cast further spells this phase.

4

Lost Concentration. The magical energies backlash as the Wizard loses their concentration.

The opposing player may immediately cast any one of their own spells of the same casting value rating or less. No casting roll is required – the spell is automatically cast – but it can be dispelled by the player whose turn it is as normal (by using power dice in the same way as dispel dice). They need to beat the basic casting value of the spell to dispel it.

5

Magical Feedback. The Wizard disperses the excess magical energy, but the resulting feedback leaves them unable to harness the Winds of Magic for a time.

The Wizard and every model on the same side within 12" that can channel/generate power or dispel dice suffer a Strength 4 hit as a result of the magical backlash. The Wizard cannot attempt to cast further spells this phase.

6

Power Drain. A massive vortex of power drains away the sorcerous energy.

The casting player loses D3 dice from the power pool.

7

Detonation. The Wizard's body is wracked by a discharge of pure magical energy, warping and burning everything in his close proximity.

The Wizard and all models in base contact with him suffer a Strength 10 hit.

8

Amnesia. The caster mispronounces one of the secret words of power binding the power of the spell, triggering an anomaly and suffers from amnesia.

The caster forgets how to cast the spell and will not be able to cast it again during this battle.

9

Calamitous Detonation. In their battle to contain the roiling energies, the Wizard somehow manages to make the situation worse, feeding more power into what promises to be a devastating explosion.

Centre the small round template over the Wizard – every model underneath the template suffers a Strength 10 hit (including the foolish Wizard – they do not benefit from "Look Out, Sir!" in this case).

10

Daemonic Possession. The caster's mind is ravaged by the power of a hideous Daemon who's attention the spellcaster has drawn.

The caster suffers one Strength 10 hit and loses a Wizard level and their highest levelled spell. If the caster reaches Level 0, he stops counting as a Wizard for all purposes and therefore will not be able to use any arcane magic items he is carrying (see the Magic Items section).

11

Dimensional Cascade. The summoned magics wrench free of the Wizard's control, laying waste to anyone unfortunate enough to be nearby as the collected magical power explodes in a ball of energy.

Centre the large round template over the Wizard – every model underneath the template (including the hapless Wizard – they do not benefit from "Look Out, Sir!" in this case) suffers a Strength 10 hit.

12+

Damned By Chaos. The fibre of reality itself is torn apart as a passage to the Realm of Chaos opens. A gigantic taloned hand emerges from the gate, seizes the screaming Wizard and drags him through the rift, disappearing with a chuckle in a flare of multi-coloured light.

The Wizard is annihilated and immediately removed as a casualty, regardless of any protective magic item or special rule they might have.

Dispel(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

If the Wizard was able to cast their spell the opposing player now has a chance to prevent the spell's effects by attempting to dispel it.

Choose Wizard(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

In order to attempt a dispel, the dispelling player first nominates one of their Wizards to make the dispel attempt. Unlike spells, dispels do not have a range and never require the Wizard to see either the target or the caster – you can simply nominate any Wizard on the battlefield.

Wizards cannot try to dispel spells if they are fleeing or not on the battlefield. If the dispelling player does not have an eligible Wizard to attempt a dispel their army can attempt to dispel the spell instead.

Choose Number of Dispel Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

When dispelling, a Wizard can use any number of dispel dice. Once the Wizard has been chosen, the player declares how many dispel dice the Wizard will use in their dispel attempt. Unlike casting, there is no upper limit on the number of dice that can be used in a dispel attempt – though you must use at least one dice from the pool if you wish to attempt a dispel.

Dispel Value(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

For a dispel to succeed, the total of the dice rolled, must equal or beat the spell's casting result.

The number of dice chosen are taken from the player's dispel pool and rolled. The results are added together, to give a dispel result, exactly as if he were casting a spell.

If the dispel result equals or exceeds the spell's casting result, the dispel is successful and the spell does not take effect. If the result is less than the spell's casting result, the dispel attempt has failed, and the spell will go through.

Dispel Bonuses(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

When dispelling a spell, there are many sources of dispel bonuses that add to the dispel value, making it easier to succeed in dispelling the spell.

The most common dispel bonus is given by the Wizard itself, and is equal to the Wizard's level divided by half. So a Level 1 and 2 Wizard gains a +1 bonus, whereas a Level 3 and 4 Wizard gains a +2 bonus.

Other dispel bonuses can come from magic items, special rules, units or terrain. Note that for whatever reason, no dispelling attempt may have more than a +5 dispel bonus in total.

Not Enough Power(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

No matter how powerful a Wizard might be, they cannot dispel a spell where the total of the natural dice scores is less than 3. A dice total of 1 or 2 is always considered to be a failure, despite the level of the Wizard. This is true regardless of any bonuses, from any source.

Broken Concentration(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

If the total of the natural dice scores is 1 or 2, not only is the spell not dispelled, but the Wizard is so preoccupied by their collapsing dispel that they are unable to dispel spells for the rest of the Magic phase. Note that the army can always attempt to dispel, regardless of previous failures.

Ultimate Power(Main Rulebook, p. 41)

For every natural 6 rolled when dispelling a spell, you automatically get to roll an additional 'free' dispel dice to boost the dispel value even further. Note that any 6's rolled on these additional dice do not count towards Ultimate Power. These additional dispel dice are not deducted from the army's dispel pool.

Spell Resolution(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Follow the instructions in the spell's text. If the enemy has failed their dispel attempt (or not even attempted one!), the spell is cast successfully and its effect is now resolved. Each spell in Warhammer provides all the information you need. Many spells inflict hits or wounds on your enemies – you can find out how to resolve these in the Shooting chapter.

Remember that if your spell was miscast, you'll need to go back and resolve the result of the miscast as soon as you've finished resolving your spell effect.

Note that if a spell is cast but cannot reach the target for any reason, the spell still counts as being cast, but won't have any effect.

Spells and Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Quite a lot of spells inflict damage in one manner or another and, as with shooting attacks, if enough damage is caused, can cause the enemy to flee from battle. Damage from magic can provoke Panic tests, as described in the Panic chapter.

Spell Duration(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Most spells are cast instantly and their effect is worked out at once. In this case, the spell has no further effect in the game until cast again. Some spells last for longer than this, for one or more phases, or turns.

Remains In Play Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Spells marked 'remains in play' stay in effect indefinitely when cast. They only come to an end when the target is slain, or else the caster is slain (or loses the spell for any reason), chooses to end the spell (which they can do at the start of any Magic phase) or leaves the battlefield. The Wizard can continue to cast other spells (but not the same remains in play spell in subsequent turns) as they require only a little concentration to keep a remains in play spell going.

If they are not dispelled immediately when they are cast, remains in play spells can be dispelled at any point during a subsequent Magic phase, using dispel dice as normal, or dice from the power pool as if they were dispel dice if it is your turn.

Remains in play spells do not retain the energy of their casting, and so a Wizard does not need to beat the original casting dice roll if attempting a dispel in subsequent turns, but rather the minimum casting value listed in the spell's description (so there is no need to make note of each spell's casting roll). If you are dispelling a boosted remains in play spell, you will need to beat the basic casting value of the spell (not the boosted casting value).

Spells Lasting More Than One Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Some spells do not specifically remain in play, but have effects that last one or more turns. Once in play, such spells cannot be dispelled, and remain in effect even if the caster is slain or leaves the battlefield, unless the spell description specifies otherwise.

Duplicate Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

You may come upon a situation where the same spell is known by more than one Wizard. Note that for whatever reason, a single unit may never be targeted by the same remains in play spell or spell that lasts more than one player turn more than once per Magic phase.

Next Spell(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

With the spell resolved, the casting player can now have the same or another of their Wizards attempt to cast another spell.

Wizards can cast spells in any order, and a player is free to switch between Wizards at any time provided that they do not do so until the casting of the current spell has been resolved.

Remember that, unless specified otherwise, each Wizard can only attempt to cast each spell only once per turn. When the casting player has finished all their casting and dispelling attempts, either because they have run out of power dice or has no remaining or useful spells to cast (or if all their Wizards have had their concentration broken by failing to cast a spell) the Magic phase ends, and the Shooting phase begins.

Bound Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 43)

Some magic items, often rings and amulets, and certain troop types, have the ability to use a form of magic called a 'bound spell'. Bound spells can be used even if the bearer has broken their concentration or is not a Wizard at all. Possessing a bound spell does not make a character a Wizard – they just have an item that can cast a spell.

Casting Bound Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 43)

A bound spell is cast just like an ordinary spell – using dice from the power pool (the model may do so even if it is not a Wizard). The required casting value is equal to the bound spell's power level.

Whenever you attempt to cast a Bound Spell from a Magic Item (but not 'innate' Bound Spells), you may add one free Power dice to the casting roll, representing the magic power held within. Note that you must always use at least one dice from the power pool when casting bound spells. You may use a maximum of three dice when casting bounds spells (including the free dice mentioned above).

Bound spells never benefit from any casting modifiers that the user might have. On the other hand, failing to cast a bound spell does not break a wizard's concentration, as using an item that contains a bound spell normally would not require anything more complex than uttering a single word of activation.

Bound spells are often tied into a spell from a magic lore. Where this is the case and there is a choice of casting levels, the bound spell is always the easier 'unboosted' version with the lower casting level.

If a bound spell is from a Lore of Magic with a lore attribute, the successful casting of the bound spell will also trigger the lore attribute. It is worth noting that some lore attributes effects target the Wizard casting the spell. In the case of Bound Spells it will target whoever is casting the spell instead.

Miscasts(Main Rulebook, p. 43)

What happens when a bound spell is miscast depends on the nature of the bound spell.

  • If the bound spell is contained within a magic item of some kind, the item crumbles to dust and cannot be used again during the game. Do not roll on the Miscast table.

  • If the bound spell is an 'innate' ability, then the model simply cannot cast further bound spells during this phase. Do not roll on the Miscast table.

Dispelling Bound Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 43)

Bound spells are dispelled exactly as other spells – the dispelling Wizard must equal or beat the casting result for a successful dispel.

Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

During the Shooting phase, your army lets fly with the missile weapons at its disposal, be they bows, cannons or fantastical war machines. Most armies will have a unit or two of archers, crossbowmen or mighty war machines, and use these missile units to thin the enemy ranks before the bloody press of melee begins in later turns. Other armies will field masses and masses of missile units, intending to seize victory in the Shooting phase by obliterating the enemy at long range.

This section covers the shooting rules for common weapons and the majority of troop types. War machines and other, more peculiar, devices of destruction are covered in their own chapter. However, even the most colossal trebuchet is governed by many of the same rules as the humble bow and arrow, so it's worth reading through this section before unlimbering your cannon or organ gun.

The Shooting Phase Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

Nominate one of your units that you want to shoot with and select one enemy unit you wish your unit to shoot at. Once you have declared your target, resolve shooting using the rules described. Then proceed to the next unit that is shooting and continue as above until you have shot with everything able to do so.

Shooting Summary

  1. Nominate Unit to Shoot

  2. Choose a Target
    - Check the Shooter Can See the Target
    - Check the Target is in Range of the Weapon

  3. Roll to Hit
    - Shooting Modifiers

  4. Roll to Wound

  5. Saving Throws

  6. Remove Casualties

What is a Missile Attack?(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

A missile attack is any attack that is performed from a distance during the shooting phase, including shots from normal weapons like bows, but also template weapons as well as magic missiles (but not direct damage spells or magical vortexes).

Nominate Unit to Shoot(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

During the Shooting phase, a model armed with a missile weapon can use it to make a single shooting attack. Models that have marched, reformed or rallied this turn cannot shoot, nor can those that have made a failed charge, are fleeing or are fighting in close combat.

Who Can Shoot?(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

To launch a successful shooting attack requires a degree of preparation as most weapons take a long time to load or aim. As a result, a model that wishes to make a shooting attack must have had a relatively uneventful Movement phase. The most common reasons a model cannot shoot are:

  • They marched in the preceding Movement phase –weapons will have been shouldered and ammunition secured while the unit advanced.

  • They rallied or declared a charge.

  • They're fighting in close combat (and therefore for their lives).

  • They're fleeing – such models are far more interested in saving their skins than firing their weapons.

  • The model is under the influence of a specific spell or special rule that prevents it from making a shooting attack.

This is, of course, not a comprehensive list. Other situations will doubtless arise, due to spell effects, army special rules and other factors. These will be explained by the relevant rule as and when they occur.

Choose a Target(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

A model can shoot at an unengaged enemy unit that is at least partially within its forward arc, and to which it has an unblocked Line of Sight. The enemy must also be within range of the weapon being used.

Now you've chosen the unit that will make the shooting attack, you need to choose a target for it to shoot at. All models in the same unit must shoot at the same target, so choose carefully.

Fire In Two Ranks(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

The rules given above allow front rank models to shoot, but we also want to allow models in the second rank to shoot (they take aim over crouched or stooping fellows in the front rank). Therefore, models in the second rank can use the line of sight and forward arc of the model directly in front of them for the purposes of all shooting attacks (including stand and shoot reactions). In simple terms, this allows units to fire in two ranks.

Models further back than the second rank of a unit are assumed to have their line of sight blocked by models further forward, and so will not normally be able to shoot, regardless of the Unit Strength of the target.

Check the Target is in Range of the Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

All missile weapons have a maximum range that indicates the furthest distance they can shoot. A detailed summary of shooting weapons and their ranges can be found in the Weapons & Armour chapter.

A model can normally only shoot at a target if it lies within the maximum range of the weapon it is shooting with. The one exception to this is when a unit Stands and Shoots – here we assume that the charging enemy has entered the weapons' range before the unit shoots.

We Can't All Fire!(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

All models in a unit have to shoot at the same target. Due to the relative positions of the shooting unit and the target, it might happen that some models in a firing unit can shoot the target while other models in the unit cannot (the target may be out of their forward arc or completely obscured by terrain or other models). Sometimes, some models in the shooting unit will be out of range. In these situations, you're free to continue with the shot, but only those models permitted to shoot the target (and that have it within their weapons' range) will fire.

In such circumstances, we assume that disciplined troops such as Elves simply do not fire at all and conserve their ammunition. On the other hand, it's easy to imagine that more boisterous warriors, such as Goblins, loose their arrows in an impressive looking (but hopeless and impossibly inaccurate) volley. In either case, for gaming purposes, these models do not shoot.

Shooting Into Flank or Rear(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

Sometimes you may find that your models are able to target an enemy unit's flank or rear. This is useful because this can circumvent protection given from shields and other equipment that normally only protect the unit's front.

A shooting unit's position during the Shooting phase determines whether it shoots into the front, flank or rear of the enemy unit. If the shooting unit is in the target's frontal zone it shoots into the front.

As units generally begin the game facing each other, this is the most common situation that will arise. However, if the shooting unit comes from the flank zone, it shoots into the side; if in the rear zone, it shoots into the rear.

If a shooting unit straddles two zones, then the unit is considered to be in the zone where the majority of the models in its front rank are. If there is no clear majority, roll a dice.

Shooting Into Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

Models are normally not permitted to shoot at enemies that are engaged in close combat, for the simple reason that there's too much danger of hitting a friend! Remember that while a fight may look like two separate blocks of troops fighting head-to-head, it's actually a swirling melee where no one stays still long enough to offer a safe shot!

However, if a unit is within 4" of an unengaged arc of an enemy unit in close combat, it may attempt to fire at them. At this distance they are close enough to be able to reasonably well pick out enemy targets from their allies and dare risk to shoot. However, for each '1' rolled when rolling to Hit, a missile manages to go awry and hit the friendly unit instead. You are only allowed to fire into combat if the target is at Unit Strength 5 or more.

Some war machine weapons, particularly those that use templates, can accidentally hit friends whilst aiming at the enemy. The key word here is 'accidentally' – you cannot purposefully aim a template so that some of your models will be hit. Note that you may never target enemies engaged in close combat with templates, even if they are within 4".

Roll To Hit(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Roll a D6 for each shot fired. The model's Ballistic Skill determines what score they must equal or beat to hit their target after any modifiers have been applied.

Not all shots have the same chance of hitting. Some warriors are simply better at aiming than others, as reflected in a higher Ballistic Skill (BS). The higher the individual's BS, the greater their chance of hitting.

To determine whether you hit, you must make a roll to hit, i.e. you roll a D6 for each model that is shooting. Note that the number of Attacks a model has will not affect the number of shots – each model can shoot only once, unless otherwise specified.

Count how many models in your unit are shooting and roll that number of dice. It is easiest to roll all the dice at once, although you don't have to. If there are a lot of models shooting, you might need to roll several batches of dice. The following table shows the minimum score you will need to hit.

Balistic Skill12345678910
To Hit Score6543210-1-2-3

Each dice that rolls a number equal to or greater than the value required has scored a hit. Each dice that rolls less is a miss.

Troops with a high BS have a To Hit score of 1, 0 or even a negative number (as shown above). Of course, you cannot roll less than 1 on a D6 so in Warhammer a To Hit roll of 1 on a D6 always fails, regardless of the dice modifiers and Ballistic Skill of the model.

Shooting Modifiers(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Raw skill is not the only factor to determine the difficulty of a shot. Many battlefield conditions can alter the accuracy of missile fire, and we represent these with a series of shooting modifiers. Shooting modifiers are applied to the dice rolls before they are compared to the score needed to hit, making the shot more difficult, and therefore less likely to succeed.

7+ To Hit(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

If shooting modifiers result in a required score of 7 or more, it is still possible to hit the target. As it is impossible to roll a 7 or better on a D6, you will first need to roll a 6. Then, for each shot scoring a 6, you need to roll a further score as shown on the chart below. So, for example, in order to score an 8, you must first roll a 6 followed by a 5 or better. If you require a score of 10 or more then it is impossible to hit the intended target – the shots are lost.

7+6 followed by a 4, 5 or 6
8+6 followed by a 5 or 6
9+6 followed by a 6
10+Impossible!

The shooting modifiers are cumulative (except when noted otherwise).

Moving and Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Models that moved for any reason (including pivoting on the spot) during this turn will have less time to aim, making their shots less accurate and suffering a shooting modifier of -1.

Standing and Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Having a bellowing enemy bear down on you whilst you're trying to aim is most distracting. Models that are making a stand and shoot reaction suffer a -1 to shooting modifier.

Lone Model(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Attempting to hit a small target at a distance is a lot harder than just unleashing your shots at a large group. Any shots taken at a single model with Unit Strength 2 or less suffer a -1 to shooting modifier.

Targets Behind Soft Cover (Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Soft cover offers a little protection against missile fire, but its main advantage is to hide the target from view. If the majority of a unit is obscured by hedges, fences, wagons or other 'soft' terrain, it is said to be in soft cover. Soft cover inflicts a -1 shooting modifier.

Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

If the majority of the models in the target unit are within Line of Sight, but behind models from another unit (friend or enemy) or terrain with half or more as high Line of Sight value as them, then an additional To Hit modifier is applied. For example, a unit where the majority of the models have a Line of Sight value of 1 in front of a unit where the majority of the models have a Line of Sight value of 2 will provide cover. However, the same unit will not provide cover to a unit whose majority of models have a Line of Sight value of 3 or higher. This works the other way around as well, so a model with a Line of Sight value of 3 will ignore the cover otherwise gained by a model with a Line of Sight value of 2 behind a model with a Line of Sight value of 1.

Cover will be classed as either soft or hard cover – see below. It is common for some models in the firing unit to have something in the way, and for others to have a clear shot. Where this happens, simply resolve the two sets of shots (and thus the two sets of To Hit modifiers) separately.

Targets Behind Hard Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 47)

Hard cover represents cover of a more durable kind, like that offered by stone walls, boulders, buildings and suchlike. We also count intervening units as hard cover. If the majority of a unit is obscured by such 'hard' terrain, it is said to be hard cover. Hard cover inflicts a -2 shooting modifier. Note that the To Hit penalties for hard and soft cover do not stack – in a situation where a target would benefit from both soft and hard cover, simply apply a -2 shooting modifier for cover.

Special Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 47)

There are multiple special rules that affect a model's shooting modifier. These are always specified under each special rule, but the most common ones are Multiple Shots, Quick to Fire, Sniper, and Volley Fire, some which inflict a -1 shooting modifier. For more information about these rules, see the Special Rules chapter.

Automatic Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 47)

Some unusual attacks (most commonly those made by magic missile spells) hit automatically. Where this is the case, it is exactly how it sounds – do not roll for the attack, it instead automatically causes the number of hits stated within the wording.

Roll to Wound(Main Rulebook, p. 48)

For each shot that hits, roll again to see if it wounds the target. The score needed is determined by comparing the Strength of the firing weapon with the Toughness of the target.

Hitting your target is not always enough to put it out of action - sometimes the shot results in little more than a graze or trivial flesh wound.

To determine whether a hit causes a telling wound, compare the weapon's Strength (not the Strength of the firer) with the target's Toughness characteristic. Each weapon has a Strength value, given in that weapon's description in the Weapon & Armour chapter.

Pick up all the dice that have hit, and roll them again. Then, consult the To Wound chart, cross-referencing the weapon's Strength (S) with the target's Toughness (T). The number indicated is the minimum score on a D6 needed to convert the hit into a wound. Any dice that equal or beat the score shown on the chart have successfully scored a wound. A To Wound roll of a 1 on a D6 always fails and a roll of 6 always succeeds, regardless of any dice modifiers.

When a unit has multiple toughness values or armour saves you use the value of the majority or in the case of a tie, the best tied value, unless specified otherwise.

S\T12345678910
14+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+
23+4+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+
32+3+4+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+
42+2+3+4+5+6+6+6+6+6+
52+2+2+3+4+5+6+6+6+6+
62+2+2+2+3+4+5+6+6+6+
72+2+2+2+2+3+4+5+6+6+
82+2+2+2+2+2+3+4+5+6+
92+2+2+2+2+2+2+3+4+5+
102+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+3+4+

Resolving Unusual Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 48)

There are several circumstances in Warhammer that call upon you to inflict hits upon an enemy – spells being an obvious example, as well as things like the Impact Hits made by a charging chariot (covered in the Special Rules chapter). Such hits are resolved using steps 4, 5 and 6 of the rules for shooting attacks.

The only exceptions are hits caused by close combat attacks – these are discussed in the Close Combat.

Saving Throws(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

Each wound suffered may be cancelled if the controlling player makes a saving throw.

Models that are wounded still have a chance to avoid a grisly death by 'saving' the wound. Hand your opponent all the dice that scored successful wounds – they then roll these in an attempt to 'save' their models. If they roll equal to or greater than the model's save, the wound has been deflected by its armour or some other form of protection.

Each save will be written like 6+, 5+ and so on, indicating that you need to roll a 6 or higher and a 5 or higher respectively to save the Wound.

All saves from various equipment or special rules are cumulative, so you can combine various types of armour for instance. For each 'point' of a save, you may add +1 to the total save, which means the score it needs to save is reduced by 1.

For example, a model with a 6+ save (or +1) that adds a piece of equipment that gives a 5+ save (or +2), will have a total of a 4+ save (or +3).

Note that a save of any kind can never be better than 1+. This does not prevent a model having items or special rules that would take the save even lower, it simply caps the saving throw at 1+. Also, remember that a roll of 1 is always a failure.

Save ModifierSave
+16+
+25+
+34+
+43+
+52+
+61+

Negative Save Modifiers(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

Some weapons or creatures are so powerful that they can punch right through armour. Such attacks inflict a modifier on the saving throw, just as shooting modifiers affect the To Hit roll.

An attack of Strength 4 inflicts a save modifier of -1, with the modifier growing a point higher for each additional point of Strength. Note that this means a model could be hit by an attack whose armour save modifier makes the armour save impossible to pass – in which case, the save is automatically failed.

For example, a model with a 3+ armour save is hit by a Strength 5 Attack with a -2 modifier. This means the model now only has a 5+ save left to try and save the Wound.

StrengthSave Modifier
1-
2-
3-
4-1
5-2
6-3
7-4
8-5
9-6
10-7

Ward Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

The Warhammer world is a place of magic, of spellcrafted armour and magical protection, where creatures can have an arcane resilience at odds with a sometimes frail appearance.

Some models have a special save called a Ward save, typically as part of their special rules or from certain Magic Items or spells. The value of a ward save will always be shown in a model's entry in the relevant Warhammer Armies book. These work in the same way as armour saves, and may be combined with other Ward saves as normal. The key difference between ward saves and armour saves is that ward saves are never modified by the Strength of the attack. However, no model may have a Ward save better than 4+ by combining multiple Ward saves regardless of source. For example, a model that has two 6+ Ward saves and a 5+ Ward save will be limited to a 4+ Ward save, though you may choose which Ward saves are used in any given situation.

Note that does not stop single Ward saves from being used, such as a model having a listed 2+ or 3+ Ward save; the above limitation only applies to combining Ward saves.

Sometimes a model has both an armour save and a Ward save. Where this is the case, the model takes its armour save as normal. If the armour save is failed (or modified to the point at which the model cannot pass it) then the model takes its Ward save.

Some models may be allowed to re-roll a Ward save from a specific source. In that case, the re-roll will only apply to that specific Ward save, and not the model's total Ward save.

Instant Kills(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

Some special attacks don't inflict wounds, but require models to be removed as casualties (after failing a Ld or T test, for example). Where this is the case, not only are no saves of any kind allowed (unless specified otherwise), but the number of wounds on the victim's profile is completely irrelevant – just remove the model from play.

Remove Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

The target unit suffers casualties for any wounds that have not been saved. Casualties are always removed from the rear of a unit.

For every model that fails its save the target unit suffers an unsaved wound (any saves that were not possible because the modifier was too high also count as having been failed). Most models have only a single Wound on their profile, in which case a single model is removed for each unsaved wound caused. Individual warriors are not necessarily dead, they may just be too badly wounded to fight on. For our purposes, the result is the same, so we treat all casualties as if they were killed and remove them from play.

Although casualties would normally fall amongst the front rank, for the purposes of game play we remove models from the rear rank of the unit. This keeps the formation neat and represents rear rankers stepping forward into gaps formerly filled by fallen comrades. If the unit is deployed in a single rank, then casualties are removed equally from both ends.

Models with More than One Wound(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

Some particularly huge or hardy troops have more than one Wound on their profile. Should such a unit suffer wounds, you must remove as many whole models as possible. You are not allowed to spread the wounds throughout the unit to avoid suffering casualties, tempting though it may be to do so.

In this situation, divide the number of wounds caused by the Wounds characteristic of the models in the target unit, removing this number of models from the rear-most rank. Any leftover wounds that were not enough to remove a model are carried over and will be added to the wounds inflicted by any subsequent attacks.

For example: A unit of Ogres suffers 5 wounds from arrow fire. Ogres are huge creatures and each model has 3 Wounds. So, 5 wounds equals one model dead (3 wounds) with 2 wounds left over. The wounds left over are not enough to remove another model, so the player must make a note that 2 wounds have been suffered by the unit. If the unit takes another wound from some other attack later in the game, then another Ogre model is removed.

Hits Inflicting Multiple Wounds(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

Some war machines, spells or magic weapons are so destructive that if a model suffers an unsaved wound from them, the victim doesn't lose only 1 Wound, but 2 Wounds, or a number of Wounds equal to the roll of a D3, D6, etc, as noted in the weapon's rules. In such cases, roll to hit and to wound as normal and then take any armour saves and ward saves that apply. Finally, for each such wound that is not saved, roll the appropriate dice to determine how many wounds are caused. A model cannot suffer more wounds than it has on its profile. Should the model do so, it dies instantly and any excess wounds are wasted.

Multi-Wound Models and Multi-Wound Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

If a unit of creatures with more than 1 Wound on their profile is hit by a weapon that causes multiple wounds, determine how many wounds are caused on each model individually (remember that each model cannot suffer more wounds than it has on its profile). Add up all wounds caused on the unit and then remove the appropriate number of models, noting any spare wounds on the unit. This method is also applied if such a unit is attacked by a spell or weapon that causes a hit on every model in the unit.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 51)

You've outmanoeuvred your foe, weakened them through spellcraft and shooting - now it's time to finish the job! The Close Combat phase is easily the most decisive part of Warhammer. It's here that swirling melees are resolved, as your warriors hack, slice and pummel their way through the enemy ranks. Make no mistake, a successful Close Combat phase can change forever the fortunes of your army. If you've prepared well in the Magic, Movement, and Shooting phases, victory is likely to be your reward.

Unlike other phases of the game, the combat phase offers both sides a chance to inflict damage on the foe, although you, as the player whose turn it is, will be the one choosing the order of the combats.

All close combats must be resolved during this phase – a unit in combat cannot choose not to fight, for whatever reason. After all, once your warriors have charged into the enemy, they are not going to simply sit down and amicably discuss their differences!

Most combats involve a single unit fighting a single opposing unit, so that's what we'll discuss first. Sometimes however, you'll end up with a multiple close combat where there is more than one unit fighting on one or both sides. Multiple close combats have some additional rules, which you'll find discussed towards the end of the chapter. As all the rules for a normal close combat also apply to a multiple close combat, you'll probably find it easier (and clearer) if you just work your way through the section.

The Close Combat Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 51)

The player whose turn it is nominates a close combat involving one or more of their units and fights a round of close combat using the rules described. Then proceed to the next close combat and continue until all units have fought. Resolve each combat completely, including any flee and pursue moves, before moving on to the next combat.

Close Combat Summary

  1. Fight a Round of Close Combat
    - Who can strike?
    - How many attacks?
    - Striking order
    - Roll to hit
    - Roll to wound
    - Saving Throws
    - Remove casualties

  2. Calculate Close Combat Result
    - Combat result bonuses
    - Who's the winner

  3. Loser Takes a Break Test
    - Taking a Break test
    - Combat reform

  4. Flee and Pursue
    - Restrain or pursue?
    - Roll flee distance
    - Roll pursuit distance
    - Caught!
    - Move fleeing unit
    - Restraining units reform
    - Move pursuers

What is a Close Combat Attack?(Main Rulebook, p. 51)

A close combat attack is any attack that is performed against units in base contact during the close combat phase, including Stomps and Impact Hits and other attacks that normally hit automatically.

Fight a Round of Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 52)

Just as all eligible units (i.e. those in base contact with the enemy) must fight in close combat, similarly all models in base contact with an enemy must fight. Models cannot elect not to strike, nor can they normally be prevented from doing so.

Occasionally a spell or special effect will stop models from fighting, but more often will simply reduce a model's chances of landing a blow – the will to survive is particularly strong when a six-foot-tall, heavily muscled killing machine is laying about you with an axe.

First Round of Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 52)

There are multiple rules in the game that refer to something having an effect "in the first round of close combat". The first round of close combat refers to the first round of close combat that a single unit is involved in without disengaging due to fleeing, pursuing or other effects. This means that if a unit is engaged in combat with one unit and is later engaged by another unit, this only counts as the first round of close combat for the new unit, not any units that were already engaged in the combat.

Who Can Strike?(Main Rulebook, p. 52)

Models can fight if they are in base contact with an enemy model when it is their chance to attack, even if the models' bases only touch at the corner.

Even models attacked in the side or rear may fight. In such cases the models are not actually turned to face their enemy – we simply assume that the individual warriors twist around as best they are able in the tight press of warriors.

Normally, a warrior can only strike blows against an enemy model in base contact. The most common exception is if they are making a supporting attack.

However, you may always direct attacks against normal rank and file models, as long as the model is in base contact with any model of the enemy unit (including characters and command group models).

If a model has more than one Attack and find itself in base contact with two or more enemies with different characteristic profiles, it must choose which one to attack when its turn to strike comes (before any dice are rolled).

Models in base contact with an enemy, even just corner-to-corner, can attack (marked white).
These two blue models are in contact with both a cavalry and an infantry model, so can choose to direct their attacks at either unit.

How Many Attacks?(Main Rulebook, p. 53)

Models in base contact with one or more enemies strike a number of blows equal to their Attacks characteristic.

For most troops this will normally be 1, although bonuses for additional hand weapons, spells or special rules can raise or lower the total. More powerful creatures, characters and monsters will often have 2, 3, 4 or even more Attacks.

Supporting Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 53)

Warriors in the second rank do not sit idly by whilst their comrades battle away, but muster forward to strike blows of their own. We refer to the attacks made by these models as supporting attacks.

A model can make a supporting attack if it is in the second rank and directly behind a friendly model that is itself fighting an enemy in base contact.

Supporting attacks cannot be made to the side or rear. Nor can they be made by models that are in base contact with enemies – they must fight the more immediate foe!

Of course, a warrior making a supporting attack is rather more constricted by the press of bodies than one who is face to face with their foe. To represent this, they can only ever make a single Attack, regardless of the number of Attacks on their profile, or any bonus Attacks they might otherwise be entitled to because of special rules or other unusual effects.

Supporting attacks are made against models in base contact with the front rank model that is being fought 'through'. If the front rank model is in base contact with two or more enemies with different profiles, the attacking player can choose which model to direct the supporting attack against (before dice are rolled).

Models (marked with dotted line) can make supporting attacks as they are directly behind a model attacking normally (marked with full line).
The models in base contact are fighting to their flank, so no supporting attacks can be made by these two models.

Incomplete Ranks(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

Strange gaps where models are missing from a rank do not prevent warriors from fighting.

If a unit is fighting to its flank, the models in the incomplete rank are moved into contact with the enemy, there to fight and be fought normally. If the unit is fighting to its rear (or fighting to both flanks) some enemy models might not end up in base contact because of the models in the incomplete rear rank. In this specific situation, the models can fight across the gap, even if not physically in base-to-base contact. In reality, the chargers would not have stopped one step away from the enemy and would have moved in to continue the fight – treat these models as being in base contact with the enemy.

The models in the incomplete rank are moved to be in contact with their enemies.
Full lines = Attacks normally, Dotted lines = Can make a supporting attack - If casualties inflicted on the red unit causes the unit to be separated, move the blue unit forward to maximise contact.

Striking Order(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

Blows are struck in Initiative order. If a model is killed before its turn to strike, it does not fight. If Initiative values are drawn, blows are struck simultaneously.

In the desperate hack and slash of close combat, the advantage lies with those warriors swiftest of mind and reaction. Slow opponents will often be dispatched by a faster foe before ever striking a blow. In essence: they who strikes first, strikes to the most devastating effect. A model's Initiative characteristic determines who attacks first in close combat (including any bonuses for using certain weapons or spells that might increase the Initiative value). Work your way through the Initiative values of the models, starting with the highest and ending with the lowest. Models make attacks when their Initiative value is reached, assuming of course that they haven't already been killed by a model with a higher Initiative and that there is still an enemy in base contact. Where models have the same Initiative, their attacks are made simultaneously.

Models that charged the same turn add +1 to their Initiative. This represents their momentum as they throw themselves at the enemy.

Split Profiles and Striking Order(Main Rulebook, p. 55)

Where a model has Attacks at two or more Initiative values, such as a knight or other cavalry models, resolve each set of Attacks in the relevant order.

If the model is slain before it can finish striking all of its blows (because one set of Attacks is at a lower Initiative than the enemy) then obviously these are lost, just as a model with a single profile would lose all of its Attacks if it were slain before striking blows.

Similarly, on rare occasions, a model with a split profile might be unable to strike some of its blows because all eligible enemies have been slain. Take heart from the fact that such situations are normally caused by your warriors having killed a great deal of the foe.

Roll To Hit(Main Rulebook, p. 55)

Roll a D6 for each attack. Compare the Weapon Skill of the attacker and the defender to determine the score required to hit.

To determine whether or not hits are scored, roll a D6 for each Attack a model gets to make. The dice roll needed to score a hit on your enemy depends on the relative Weapon Skills of the attacker and the target. Compare the Weapon Skill of the model striking blows with that of the target model and consult the To Hit chart below to find out the minimum score needed to hit.

If you look at the chart, you will see that equally matched models hit an enemy on a 4+, but if the attacker's Weapon Skill is greater than that of their target, they will hit on a dice roll of 3+. In cases where the attacker’s Weapon Skill is more than double that of the target, they will hit on a dice roll of 2+. In cases where a target's Weapon Skill is more than double that of the attacker, a 5+ is required for a successful hit. If a model has twice the Weapon Skill plus 3, a 6 is required.

If you roll too low, the Attack has missed, and if you equal or beat the required score, the Attack has hit. Sometimes modifiers apply to these rolls, but a natural dice score of 6 always hits and a natural dice score of 1 always misses.

A\D12345678910
14+4+5+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+
23+4+4+4+5+5+6+6+6+6+
32+3+4+4+4+4+5+5+6+6+
42+3+3+4+4+4+4+4+5+5+
52+2+3+3+4+4+4+4+4+4+
62+2+3+3+3+4+4+4+4+4+
72+2+2+3+3+3+4+4+4+4+
82+2+2+3+3+3+3+4+4+4+
92+2+2+2+3+3+3+3+4+4+
102+2+2+2+3+3+3+3+3+4+

Roll To Wound(Main Rulebook, p. 56)

Roll a D6 for each attack that hit. Compare the Strength of the attacker and the Toughness of the defender to find the score required to wound.

Not all hits are going to harm your enemy – some bounce off tough hide, while others cause only superficial damage. As with shooting, once you have hit your foe, you must roll again to see whether or not each hit inflicts a wound. Pick up all the dice that scored hits and roll them again.

Consult the To Wound chart, cross-referencing the attacker's Strength with the defender's Toughness. Both values appear on the profiles of the creatures that are fighting. The chart indicates the minimum score required on a D6 to cause a wound. In most cases, you use the Strength on the attacker's profile regardless of what weapon they are using. However, some close combat weapons give the attacker a Strength bonus, as we'll discuss in the Weapons chapter.

Remember to roll dice separately for models with different Strength values. Sometimes modifiers apply to these rolls, but a natural dice score of 6 always succeeds and a natural dice score of 1 always fails.

S\T12345678910
14+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+
23+4+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+
32+3+4+5+6+6+6+6+6+6+
42+2+3+4+5+6+6+6+6+6+
52+2+2+3+4+5+6+6+6+6+
62+2+2+2+3+4+5+6+6+6+
72+2+2+2+2+3+4+5+6+6+
82+2+2+2+2+2+3+4+5+6+
92+2+2+2+2+2+2+3+4+5+
102+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+3+4+

Take Saving Throws(Main Rulebook, p. 57)

The enemy now rolls a D6 for each wound suffered. If the score is equal or greater than the model's saving throw, the wound is discounted.

As before in the Shooting phase, the enemy player can try to 'save' models that have been wounded by rolling a D6 for each wound suffered by their troops. If they roll equal to or greater than the model's save (after any modifiers have been applied) the wound has been deflected by its armour. See Saving Throws of the Shooting Phase if you need a reminder about the different types of save and how they work. Remember that wounds caused by Strength 4 or higher inflict a saving throw modifier on armour saves.

Save ModifierSave
+16+
+25+
+34+
+43+
+52+
+61+

Remove Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 57)

Casualties are removed from the rear rank, just like models killed by shooting attacks. Models that have stepped up to replace the fallen can fight, provided that their Initiative step has not passed.

With saving throws made or failed, you now need to remove the slain. Close combat casualties are removed in the same way as shooting ones. Although we can imagine casualties falling amongst the fighting rank, warriors in the ranks behind will step forward to fill any gaps that appear. Casualties will therefore be removed straight from a unit's rear rank. This means that if a unit is big enough, taking a handful of casualties will not reduce the number of Attacks the unit can make back.

It can happen that a model causes more casualties than it has enemies in base contact. The excess casualties are removed as normal from the unit as a whole, representing the attackers fighting over the fallen foes.

It is a good idea not to immediately remove models that are slain from the table, but instead temporarily place them next to their unit – you will need to know how many casualties have been caused when working out who won the combat.

Calculate Combat Result(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

Once all the models engaged in the combat have fought, this concludes what we call a 'combat round' or 'round of close combat'.

Now you must determine which side has won. Inflicting casualties plays a huge part in seizing victory, but other factors, such as the sheer mass of a unit, the momentum of a charge and fighting downhill, can also prove to be telling.

The winner of a combat is decided by the number of casualties, plus certain other bonuses. To calculate which side has won the combat, we first need to work out each side's combat result score. We determine combat result score by adding up the following bonuses:

Wounds Inflicted+1 each
Charging+1 for each unit that charged
Extra Ranks+1 for each rank behind the first; cumulative across each arc, up a maxium of +3
Outnumber+1 for higher cumulative unit strength
Standard+1 for each unit standard bearer
Battle Standard+1 for army battle standard bearer
Flank Attack+1 for each engaged enemy flank
Rear Attack+2
High Ground+1 if fighting from highest position or if charged from higher position that turn
Overkill+1 for each excess would caused in a challenge, up a maxium of +3

Wounds Inflicted(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

+1 combat result for each wound inflicted.

Inflicting wounds on the foe is an important factor when determining combat resolution – perhaps the most important.

Each side's basic combat result is equal to the wounds caused in the close combat phase, regardless of source (except wounds that are caused by friendly models). It's important to tally up the number of wounds, rather than the number of casualties – most characters and monsters have more than one wound and it can take several rounds of combat to slay them.

Nonetheless, our warriors take heart from the harm inflicted on such powerful foes, even if they are not yet down for the count. Do NOT count wounds that were saved (in other words, only count unsaved wounds).

Charge!(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

+1 combat result if the unit charged.

The momentum of a charge can give your unit a much-needed boost when breaking the spirit of your enemy. If your unit charged this turn, it receives +1 combat result. This is cumulative with several units charging the same target at once.

Extra Ranks(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

+1 combat result for each extra rank with at least five models, to a maximum of +3.

The extra ranks of a unit's formation are not solely there to provide replacements to the fighting rank – they push the front rank forward and this momentum can swing a fight all by itself.

If your unit's formation is at least five models wide, you can claim a bonus of +1 combat result for each extra rank of five or more models behind the fighting rank, at the end of the fight, up to a maximum of +3. Note that this bonus can be claimed for an incomplete rear rank, as long as there are five models in it.

This is cumulative with several units engaged in the same close combat, calculating ranks for each unit, as long as they are engaged in different arcs of the enemy unit (up to a maximum of +3 per arc). If two units engage an enemy unit in the same arc, count only the highest number of ranks from one of the units.

Disruption(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

A unit does not receive combat result points for extra ranks and cannot be Steadfast (see Loser Takes a Break Test) as long as it is disrupted.

A unit is disrupted if an enemy is attacking it in the flank or rear, and that enemy unit has Unit Strength 10 or more. Smaller units are assumed to have insufficient mass to cause disruption.

Sometimes, an enemy unit will begin the round of close combat with enough Unit Strength to cause disruption, but takes enough casualties so that it has below Unit Strength 10. In this case, it can no longer disrupt the unit it is fighting and the extra ranks are counted as normal.

Outnumber(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

+1 combat result for having more Unit Strength than your enemy.

When a group of warriors is facing uneven odds, it is considerably more likely to lose heart. Likewise, knowing that you outnumber the foe can be a great morale boost. If your unit has a higher Unit Strength of your enemy, add +1 to the combat result. If multiple units are involved in the same combat, calculate the combined Unit Strength of all units involved on both sides to determine which side might get the Outnumber bonus.

Standard(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

+1 combat result for a standard bearer.

Most troops fight all the harder beneath the colours or symbols of their city, nation, tribe or god. If your unit includes a standard bearer, it receives +1 Combat Result. This is cumulative with several units engaged in the same close combat, each with their own standard bearer.

Battle Standard(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

+1 combat result for a battle standard.

Troops fight harder under the personal banner of their lord. Therefore, if your unit includes a battle standard, it receives +1 combat result, cumulative with any bonus for a 'normal' standard.

Flank Attack(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

+1 combat result if your unit is fighting the enemy unit's flank.

Fighting a foe in its flank is a great advantage. The enemy warriors cannot easily turn to combat their attackers, and the sudden appearance of an enemy from an unexpected quarter has a psychological value all of its own. Therefore, if one or more of your units are fighting the enemy in its flank, you receive +1 combat result. If the enemy unit is engaged in both flanks, you receive +2 to the combat result instead.

Rear Attack(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

+2 combat result if your unit is fighting the enemy unit's rear.

Fighting the enemy in the rear has all the advantages of a flank attack, only more so. If one or more of your units are fighting the enemy in the rear, you receive +2 combat result.

High Ground(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

+1 combat result if fighting from a higher ground.

Charging down a hill or mounting a stiff defence at the top of a rocky crag is a great advantage. If you are charging or fighting from a higher position than your enemy, for example, your troops are occupying the crest of a hill or charged down from it the same turn, you receive +1 combat result. In the case of a fight involving multiple units, the side that has the fighting rank in the highest position gets the bonus.

Overkill(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

+1 combat result per excess wound caused in a challenge, to a maximum of +3.

When a unit sees their enemy's best fighter cut to ribbons, the carnage most definitely influences their will to fight. If a character fighting in a challenge kills their opponent and scores more wounds than their enemy has remaining, then each excess wound scores +1 combat result, up to a maximum of +3.

Challenges are a special type of close combat performed only by characters, and are covered in more detail in the Characters chapter.

Who is the Winner?(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

The unit with the highest combat result score wins the fight.

After adding together all the combat result bonuses, you'll be able to determine the winner, i.e. the side that scored the most. The other side has lost and might even run from the fight, as we'll discuss in the next step. If both sides have the same score, the result is a draw and the combat will continue in the next turn.

The higher the difference between the winner's combat result score and the loser's, the bigger and more decisive the victory.

Wipeout!(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

Of course, if one side has been completely wiped out in the fight, the other side is automatically the winner. In such cases the unit automatically restrains pursuit and reforms. Alternatively, if the unit charged this turn it can choose to overrun.

Loser Takes a Break Test(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

The losing unit in a combat must pass a Leadership test or flee. This Break test is modified by the amount by which the unit lost the combat.

In the brutal hack and slash of close combat, it is rare for warriors to fight to the last man. Defeating the enemy is much easier if you can break the resolve of your opponent.

The side that loses a round of close combat must take a test to determine whether it continues to stand and fight, or breaks from the combat and runs away. This is called a Break test. Troops that are better led, braver, and more professional are more likely to stand firm, while wild, temperamental troops are far more likely to run for it.

Taking a Break Test(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

A Break test is a type of Leadership test. However, before rolling the dice, the difference between the winner's combat result score and the loser's is applied as a penalty to the defeated unit's Leadership. If the total is less than or equal to the loser's modified Leadership, the unit stands its ground and settles in for another round of fighting – this close combat has finished for the turn. If the total is greater than the unit's modified Leadership value then the unit has broken and will flee. Note that this modified Leadership is used only for the Break test and any subsequent attempt to make a combat reform (explained later).

Example: a unit must take a Break test with a -3 penalty to their Leadership, because the difference between the scores was 3. The unit has Leadership value (8) but with the extra -3 penalty their Leadership is reduced to 5 for this test, therefore the player will have to roll 5 or less to stand and fight. The player rolls 2D6 and scores 7 – this is greater than the unit's modified Leadership, so the unit has broken and will flee.

Note that in case the penalty to the losing unit's Leadership is equal to or greater than their modified Leadership value, no test is taken and the unit will automatically break and flee from combat.

Example: a unit must take a Break test with a -5 penalty to their Leadership, because the difference between the scores was 5. The unit has Leadership value (5) but with the extra -5 penalty their Leadership is reduced to 0 for this test, therefore the unit will automatically break and flee without taking a Break test.

Steadfast(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

If a defeated unit has higher Unit Strength than its enemy, it takes its Break test on its unmodified Leadership.

When at war, there's definitely something to be said for having vast numbers at your disposal. Not only will your warriors be worried far less by the odd fallen comrade (there's plenty more where they came from) but they'll also take heart from being more numerous than the enemy. To represent this in our games, we have something called the Steadfast rule.

A unit is considered to be Steadfast if it has a higher Unit Strength than its enemy and at least Unit Strength 10. In addition, it must also have a rank of 5 or more models (including the front rank). Disrupted units and Skirmishers (see Special Rules chapter) cannot be Steadfast.

Steadfast units always take Break tests on their own Leadership characteristic, ignoring any negative close combat resolution modifiers. It doesn't matter whether they have been beaten by 1 point or by 100 points, they still use their normal Leadership value. However, remember that units that are Disrupted cannot be Steadfast.

Combat Reform(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Assuming that a unit doesn't flee the fight, its leader can attempt to bring more warriors to bear against the foe. This is far easier for the winning side, as they have sufficient momentum, but a disciplined unit can manage this even if on the losing end of a combat.

Reforming from Victory(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

If your unit wins the close combat but the enemy does not flee, or the combat was a draw, your unit can immediately make a combat reform manoeuvre.

A combat reform is essentially a standard reform save for the fact that the centre point of the reformed unit does not have to stay in the same place. The most common usage of a combat reform is to allow the unit to turn to face its enemy (if attacked in the flank or rear), although it can also be used to bring more models into the fight by increasing the unit's frontage. There are three special restrictions on a combat reform, however:

  • The unit may not reform to get a model (friend or foe) out of base contact with the enemy if it was in contact before the reform was made.

  • The unit may not reform in such a way as to contact a different facing on any enemy unit it is in contact with, though the model can be in base contact with a different enemy at the end of the reform if you wish.

  • The unit must keep its front arc in base contact with an enemy unit.

Reforming from Defeat(Main Rulebook, p. 61)

If your unit loses the combat, but does not flee, it can still attempt a combat reform.

In this case, your unit must pass a Leadership test to muster the necessary discipline to alter its formation. Note that this Leadership test is subject to any modifiers from having lost the fight, just like a Break test. If your unit is steadfast the test is taken on the unit's unmodified Leadership. If the test is failed, your unit cannot make a combat reform. If the test is passed, the combat reform can be carried out as described above.

Unusual Situations(Main Rulebook, p. 61)

If both sides wish to make (or attempt to make) a combat reform, take any Leadership tests required in order to make the reforms, then roll off to determine which side makes all of their reforms first (the winner of the roll-off decides).

If a unit is engaged to more than one facing (say to the front and one flank), it cannot make combat reforms.

In case multiple units are involved in the same combat and one unit flees, any combat reforms attempted are done after all pursuit attempts are finished.

In some cases, most likely because a unit previously engaged in combat has broken off or similar, two units might find themselves only partially engaged in base contact with some models in the front rank not fighting. In these situations, the unit with the lower Unit Strength must be moved sideways until all models in either unit's front rank is in base contact with the other unit. This is done after any other reform has been performed.

Flee and Pursue(Main Rulebook, p. 62)

If a unit fails its Break test it must flee and might be destroyed as it runs.

However great the slaughter that occurred in the clash of swords, the subsequent flee and pursuit may well be bloodier still. When a unit flees from close combat, it does so with wild abandon. Warriors run from the enemy with all possible haste, casting aside anything that might encumber them and giving thought to nothing other than survival. For the pursuing unit, such warriors are easy prey, to be hacked down, captured as slaves or driven from the field of battle. A regiment that flees from combat, therefore, is almost certainly doomed. Only by outpacing the enemy do they have any chance of survival.

Restrain or Pursue(Main Rulebook, p. 62)

The victorious unit can choose to pursue or restrain pursuit.

If the losing unit failed its Break test, it must flee, but the winning unit now has a choice of actions. It can pursue the foe, seeking to solidify the victory by scattering or slaying the survivors of the fight. Alternatively, the victorious unit can attempt to stand fast, using the precious seconds earned by its victory to reorder itself and prepare for other fights to come. Restraining from pursuit in this manner requires a degree of organisation and discipline that does not come easily in the heat of battle.

Accordingly, if you wish your unit to restrain pursuit, it must first take a Leadership test to see whether or not its leaders have been able to keep it in order. If the test is passed, the unit conforms to your wishes and holds position, and can choose to reform once the defeated enemy has fled. If the test is failed, then no amount of bellowing or bullying will be sufficient to keep the unit in order – they elect to pursue the enemy anyway.

Roll to Flee(Main Rulebook, p. 62)

A unit flees 2D6.

With the intentions of the victorious unit declared, it's time to see just how badly the losing unit wants to escape and calculate the distance that it flees.

It is difficult to say precisely how far fleeing troops will run because they are no longer fighting as a body but milling around in a frightened mob. Indeed, unless the fleeing troops are all of one mind, confusion is likely slow their escape, making it all the more likely they are caught by their pursuers. To represent the fleeing unit swiftness of foot and reaction, the controlling player rolls 2D6, the result is the Flee roll.

Roll to Pursue(Main Rulebook, p. 62)

A unit pursues 2D6.

Can the fleeing troops escape their pursuers? To find out, the pursuing unit needs to make its Pursuit roll. Like fleeing, pursuit is a hectic and uncontrolled affair, so we roll 2D6 to determine if the pursuers were quick-witted and quick-footed enough to catch their prey.

Caught!(Main Rulebook, p. 62)

If one or more pursuing unit rolls equal to or higher than the fleeing unit, parts of the fleeing unit is destroyed.

If the victorious unit's pursuit roll is equal to or greater than the Flee roll scored by the fleeing enemy unit, the fleeing unit is partly destroyed where they stand, and some of the troops are cut down as they turn to run.

The fleeing unit suffers two Wounds with no saves of any kind allowed for each point of Unit Strength the charging unit(s) has, just as when charging a fleeing enemy. If any models survive, the pursuing unit then stops 1" behind the remains of the fleeing unit, just as if they had charged a fleeing enemy. If no models survive, see the Move Pursuers section below.

Move Fleeing Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 63)

Fleeing units turn around to face away from the victor and then move directly forward a number of inches equal to their Flee roll.

If the fleeing unit rolls higher than the pursuers, or has not been pursued at all, then it has escaped. With a bit of luck, the warriors will come to their senses once the immediate danger has passed, and might yet play a useful part later on in the battle.

To resolve the flee move, turn the unit around about its centre so that it is facing directly away from the enemy unit (rather than the enemy unit's centre).

The unit then flees straight forward a distance equal to the result of the Flee roll. This is otherwise treated exactly the same as a flee move in the Movement phase. You'll remember that fleeing troops are assumed to run around, force their way through or otherwise avoid other units and impassable terrain in their desperate flight.

1. The red unit rolls its flee distance and the blue unit rolls its pursuit. The red unit has rolled higher and escape.
2. The red unit pivots around its centre until it is facing directly away from the blue unit.
3. The red unit then flees directly forwards a number of inches equal to its Flee roll.
4. The blue unit then moves directly forward a number of inches equal to their pursuit roll.

Restraining Units Reform(Main Rulebook, p. 63)

A unit that does not pursue can perform a reform manoeuvre.

If your unit elected to restrain and passed the test to do so, or wiped out the enemy and did not overrun, it can now perform a reform manoeuvre, as described in the Movement phase.

Move Pursuers(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

The pursuing unit pivots to face the centre of the fleeing unit and moves directly forward equal to its pursuit roll. It will stop 1" away from any friendly units or impassable terrain, and will charge an enemy in the way.

With the final position of the fleeing unit now determined, it's time to move the pursuers. Turn the pursuing unit about its centre (ignoring other units) so that it is facing directly towards the centre of the unit they are pursuing – the pursuers then move straight forward a number of inches equal to the amount rolled on the dice.

Note that pursuers make this move even if the fleeing unit was caught or otherwise destroyed for any reason, as described earlier – the 'pursuit' move in this case represents them surging forward to cut down any stragglers.

Pursuit into an Obstruction(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

Unlike fleeing troops, pursuers maintain some manner of order and formation. Therefore, if the pursuit move would take the pursuers into contact with (or through) a friendly unit or area of impassable terrain, they automatically halt 1" away.

Pursuit into a New Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

If a pursuit move would take the pursuer into contact with an enemy unit, then the pursuers must charge the enemy unit.

Carry out the charge as you would in the Movement phase, following all the normal restrictions. However, you do not need to roll for the charge range – we already know from the pursuit roll that these unwitting chargers have momentum to reach the foe, whether they wished to or not. The charging unit must wheel and close the door in such a way as to maximise contact, as they would with a normal charge.

Naturally, the charged unit is taken by surprise by this impromptu assault – it is not allowed to take any charge reactions and must Hold.

If this enemy unit was already engaged in close combat at the start of the Close Combat phase, and that fight has not been resolved for this turn, then the pursuing unit will get to fight another round of close combat! If a pursuing unit is lucky enough to win a second fight in the same turn, it cannot overrun and automatically restrains pursuit (and can reform!).

If the unit that has been charged as a result of pursuit was not engaged in combat from the beginning of this combat phase, or if it was engaged but that fight has already been resolved in this combat phase, the combat is not resolved straight away, but in the combat phase of the following turn.

In the following turn's combat phase, the pursuers will still count as charging.

This might result in both sides having charging units in the same fight, in which case the charging units on both sides will get the normal bonuses conferred by charging (e.g. causing impact hits, benefiting from a lance's Strength bonus, etc., and other bonuses described later in this Rules section). Also, both sides will get the +1 combat resolution bonus, which will effectively cancel each other out.

1. The red unit has rolled high enough to escape their pursuers, and move through a friendly red unit as they flee.
2. The blue unit's pursuit move would take them into contact with the second red unit, so they must charge this new enemy, wheeling to maximise contact as normal.

Pursuit into Fleeing Foes(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

Even if the charged unit was already fleeing, it still cannot take any charge reactions. Move the pursuers into contact with it as you would for a unit completing a charge against a fleeing unit. If the fleeing unit is completely destroyed the pursuing unit is allowed one final reform.

Overrun!(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

If the victorious unit charged into combat and the enemy was wiped out, it can move 2D6 inches straight forward.

If a unit charges into combat and, by the end of that round of close combat, all its enemies have been wiped out as the result of the combat or combat result (rather than the pursuit) the unit can choose to make a pursuit move, even with nobody left alive to pursue. This is an overrun move and represents the unit surging forwards, hungry to find more enemies to fight.

An overrun is essentially a special pursuit move. When making an overrun, the victorious unit moves 2D6" directly forwards, as if they were pursuing a fleeing enemy to their front. All other rules governing pursuit moves, such as intervening units and terrain, apply to overruns.

If you charge an enemy and they are wiped out before the Close Combat phase (by a spell or template weapon for instance), you can choose to either Overrun or Reform From Victory (unless the unit has made any other moves this turn outside of the Movement phase). This occurs at the start of the Close Combat phase before any blows have been struck.

Pursuit Off the Battlefield(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

A pursuing unit that moves into contact with the battlefield edge moves off the battlefield. They're so caught up in their pursuit of the foe that their momentum carries them clean off the battlefield!

Unlike troops fleeing the battlefield, however, such pursuers are good and keen to come back to the fray. Accordingly, we allow them to re-enter the board in their next Movement phase, using the rules for Reinforcements. The unit is placed back as close as possible to the same point from which it left the battlefield, in the same formation. Remember that it needs to face directly towards the battlefield and have all of its rear rank touching the battlefield edge. It's often a good idea to leave a model from such a unit in order to mark the position from which it left the battlefield (a standard bearer is ideal).

Multiple Close Combats(Main Rulebook, p. 66)

It is possible that more than two units can become involved in the same close combat.

A multiple combat is a fight that involves more than one unit on either (or even both) sides. Unless otherwise stated, all the rules for a one-on-one close combat also apply to a combat with multiple units on each side.

Multiple Combats and Break Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 66)

In a combat involving multiple units, you will first need to calculate the total combat resolution score for all units involved on both sides to determine the overall winner of that round of combat.

After this, the Break test modifier for each unit on the losing side is to be calculated separately and compared to the combined combat resolution score of only the enemy units they are in base contact with, not any other friendly units involved in the combat. This means that you need to keep a tally on the number of Wounds caused by each unit so you don't lose track of their individual combat resolution score. This is most easily done by keeping the slain enemy models of each unit behind the unit that inflicted the casualties until the final combat result is calculated.

Units on the losing side whose combat resolution score is equal to or higher than the combined resolution score of all the enemy units they are in base contact with do not need to take any break test, but instead counts as fighting to a draw.

In addition, no unit on the losing side will suffer a negative modifier greater than the overall loss of their side, even if that unit itself might have a much lower combat resolution score than the units they are in base contact with.

Note that if a unit is Disrupted from any source, it may not count its rank bonus against any unit it may be in base contact with.

Example (see diagrams below): A unit of Empire Halberdiers is fighting unit a unit of Orcs to its front and a unit of Goblins to its flank.

The Halberdiers inflict 2 Wounds against the Orcs and 4 Wounds against the Goblins, have 3 ranks, Standard and Outnumber, for a total combat resolution score of 11.

The Orcs inflict 4 Wounds against The Halberdiers, have 2 ranks and Standard for a total combat resolution score of 7.

The Goblins inflict 1 Wound against the Halberdiers and have Flank bonus for a total combat resolution score of 2.

The Orcs and Goblins together has a total combat resolution score of 9, meaning the Halberdiers win the overall combat by 2.

The Orcs have a total combat resolution score of 7 against the Halberdiers. The Halberdiers have a total combat resolution score of 7 against the Orcs. The Halberdiers and Orcs count as fighting to a draw, and thus the Orcs do not need to take a Break test this turn.

The Goblins have a total combat resolution score of 2 against the Halberdiers. The Halberdiers have a total combat resolution score of 9 against the Goblins. Normally the Goblins would have lost the combat by 7. However, as the overall combat was lost by just 2, the Goblins must take a Break test suffering only a -2 Leadership Modifier.

Steadfast(Main Rulebook, p. 67)

Units on the losing side are Steadfast as per the normal rules as long as the combined Unit Strength of all friendly units is higher than that of the combined Unit Strength of all enemy units in the close combat. Note that currently Disrupted units do not contribute to the overall Unit Strength for those units that can be Steadfast.

Multiple Combats and Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 67)

It can happen that one or more victorious units have defeated several enemies that were engaging them from different sides.

Where this happens, bear the following in mind:

Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 67)

Units on the winning side are each only permitted to pursue a single enemy unit that they are in base contact with (declare this before any Flee rolls are made). In addition, they cannot choose to pursue if one or more of the units they are in base contact with pass their Break tests. This is quite realistic – your warriors are hardly likely to go haring off after a broken enemy if there are still fresh and eager foes to face. If there is more than one pursuing unit, the controlling player can choose the order in which they move, after rolling their pursuit distance.

Flee!(Main Rulebook, p. 67)

Fleeing units must roll greater than the scores rolled by all of their pursuers in order to get away. If one or more of their pursuers equals or beats the fleeing unit's score, then the fleeing unit is cut down, following the rules for charging fleeing enemies.

Direction of Flight(Main Rulebook, p. 67)

Where there is a choice of foes to flee from, warriors will always be more determined to avoid the most numerous enemy. The controlling player decides the order in which units flee.

Each fleeing unit pivots about its centre (ignoring enemy units) so that it is facing directly away from the enemy with the highest Unit Strength (select a unit randomly if there is a tie). It then flees straight forward in this direction as described earlier.

You may find that this involves the fleeing unit turning so that it overlaps one or more other units in the fight. If this happens, simply estimate the unit's new position as best you can by holding it above the rest of the units in the fight.

The red unit turns to face directly away from the enemy unit with the largest unit strength, and flee. As the unit has fled through an enemy unit with Unit Strength 10 it suffers 10 Wounds with no saves, so the red unit would get destroyed as a result.

Direction of Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 68)

Once all flee moves have been resolved, resolve any pursue moves one at a time. In an order chosen by the controlling player, each pursuer pivots about its centre (ignoring other units) so that it is facing directly towards the centre of the fleeing unit of its choice, and then pursues, as described earlier. Note that this will sometimes lead to a pursuing unit 'catching up' with a fleeing unit that has rolled high enough to escape. In this case, the pursuing unit must stop 1" away.

The red unit has lost the combat and failed its Break test. It has rolled high enough to escape, and make its flee move of 7".
The blue player decides to move his smaller unit first. The unit pivots to face the fleeing red unit and starts its pursuit move of 6". Because of its position, this move would bring it back into contact with the red unit, so it has to stop 1" away.
The larger blue unit then makes its pursuit move, but must stop 1" away from its comrades.

Shrinking Units and Multiple Fights(Main Rulebook, p. 68)

Occasionally, a situation can arise when one or more units are no longer in base contact with the enemy, but at least part of the enemy unit is still alive. This normally occurs when an enemy has been charged in the rear – as casualties come from the rear rank first, this would in theory leave the attackers stranded from their foe. Clearly this is wrong, just as warriors on a real battlefield would push on to continue the fight, and would not stop fighting if the enemy was standing a few paces away, so must warriors on the miniature battlefield.

Whenever a unit becomes stranded in this manner, the attacking unit is immediately nudged (by as small an amount as possible) to bring it back into contact with the foe. This move cannot be used to alter the facing the attacker is in base contact with, nor is it an opportunity to change the attacker's formation or charge a unit not engaged in the fight. If the attacker cannot be moved in this manner, then the defending unit is moved instead.

No More Foes(Main Rulebook, p. 68)

In multiple combats it can sometimes happen that at the end of a round of close combat some units are no longer engaged with any enemy unit (normally because the unit they were engaged with has been completely destroyed). Such units are out of combat for all purposes and can move normally from then on. Any combat result points that unit would have added to the fight for wounds inflicted are still counted for the fight's overall combat resolution, but other bonuses are not. Note that such a unit cannot cancel out Steadfast in an enemy, nor add their Unit Strength towards the total Unit Strength of the units involved in the combat.

Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

The battlefield is a disconcerting place, to say the least, full of confusion, death and unsettling circumstances. Under such conditions, it's not entirely surprising that troops might not perform in the manner that you wish them too. Faced with allies and comrades being slain at the hands of the foe, you may find that your warriors scatter and leave the battlefield, rather than fight on. In Warhammer we govern these situations, and the likelihood of them occurring, with the rules for panic.

Panic (and more importantly, resisting panic) is an important factor in Warhammer. Battles can sometimes be won and lost because an army panics and flees, even though it may not have been beaten in combat.

Troops who are nearby when their friends are destroyed or run away can easily lose their nerve and flee, causing other nearby troops to lose heart until the whole army routs in blind panic.

Panic Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

A Panic test is simply a Psychology test. If the test is passed, everything is fine, but if the test is failed the unit will immediately flee as described further down.

Note that a unit only needs to take one Panic test in each phase (Movement, Magic, Shooting and Close Combat) even if there are multiple reasons to take Panic tests. Some Panic tests are taken immediately, and in larger games you'll find it helpful to mark units that have already taken Panic tests, in order that you don't end up mistakenly taking another as the phase goes on.

If two or more units from the same army have to take Panic tests at the same time, the controlling player chooses the order in which tests are made. It's worth noting however that there are three circumstances under which even the most cowardly of units are not forced to take Panic tests.

  • A unit does not take Panic tests if it is in close combat – the immediate fray blots out all other events going on around them.

  • A unit does not take a Panic test if that unit is already fleeing – fear has already lent wings to these warriors, the prospect of further jeopardy does not accelerate their flight.

  • Finally, remember that a unit does not take a Panic test if it has already passed one earlier in the phase –its nerve has been tested already!

Assuming a unit is not subject to the circumstances described above, the most common circumstances under which it must take a Panic test are:

Heavy Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

A unit must take a Panic test immediately if it loses 25% or more of the Unit Strength with which it started the phase.

This test will most commonly be taken as a result of shooting attacks or damage caused by enemy spells, but can also be triggered by other factors that cause casualties, such as miscasts, misfires, Dangerous Terrain tests or other special rules. Rather than having a series of very specific triggers for a Panic test, we use this as a 'catch-all' to cover units that suffer high casualties for any reason.

A Heavy Casualties Panic test must also be taken (immediately!) by a charging unit if its enemies Stand and Shoot and inflict 25% or more casualties in Unit Strength. Where this happens, it can sometimes result in the charging unit panicking while it is still technically out of range of the enemy unit's missile weapons, which can look a little odd. Under these circumstances, we assume the charging unit to have been shot at as soon as it entered range, panicked and then fled out of range again – rather than make all of these individual moves, we let the abstraction save us time and complication.

Nearby Friend Annihilated(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

If a unit that started the phase with Unit Strength 10 or more is destroyed for any reason, all friendly units within 6" must immediately test for panic.

This covers situations such as when a unit is wiped out by missile fire, magic, close combat, pursuit or indeed any other occurrence. Obviously, it's best to leave the annihilated unit in place until the tests are taken in order to give a point to measure from.

The middle blue unit has been destroyed in close combat. All friendly units within 6" must immediately test for Panic — the destroyed unit is left in place until the tests are made to ensure an accurate measurement.

Nearby Friend Breaks(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

If a unit that started the phase with Unit Strength 10 or more breaks from close combat, all friendly units within 6" must immediately test for panic.

Measure from the unit's position before it makes any flee move.

Fled Through(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

A unit must immediately test for panic if fleeing friends with Unit Strength 10 or more move through it.

For simplicity, resolve the movement of the fleeing friends before taking and resolving the Panic test.

This is the most destructive form of panic, as one unit can panic and flee through another unit, which in turn might panic and flee through a further unit, and so on until your battleline is reduced to tatters.

Direction of Flight(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

If a unit fails a Panic test:

  • Brought about by heavy casualties. Pivot the unit on the spot (ignoring other units) so that it is feeing directly away from the unit/terrain that caused the most casualties in that phase – it then flees as normal. If there is nothing to flee from (for example, the damage caused by a miscast from a Wizard in the unit). Pivot the unit on the spot (ignoring other units) so that it is facing directly away from the closest enemy unit.

  • Brought about by any other reason. Pivot the unit on the spot (ignoring other units) so that it is facing directly away from the closest enemy unit, and then flees as normal.

Providing that the panicked unit doesn't carry itself off the board with its first flee move, you'll have a chance to rally it in later turns.

Special Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 71)

A Warhammer battle is packed with fantastic creatures and skilled warriors whose abilities are so incredible and varied that the basic rules cannot possibly cover them all. For such circumstances we have special rules - uncommon rules to govern uncommon circumstances. When a creature has an ability that breaks or bends one of the main game rules, it is often represented by a special rule. A special rule can boost a model's chances of causing damage, such as by granting poisoned weapons, or enhance its Strength. Alternatively, a special rule can improve a model's survivability, by granting it a better armour save or the ability to regrow damaged flesh. It is through the use of the special rules that Dragons breathe fire, Assassins strike with lightning speed and Giants cause bowel-loosening terror in their enemies.

Unless stated otherwise, a model does not have a special rule. Most special rules are given to a model by the relevant entry in its Warhammer Armies book. In addition, a model's attacks can gain special rules because of the equipment it is using. Similarly, a model might get special rules as the result of a spell that has been cast upon it or perhaps even as the result of it being in a particular type of terrain. Where this is the case, the rule that governs the equipment, spell or terrain feature in question will make this clear.

Most of the more commonly used special rules in Warhammer are listed here, but many troop types have their own unique abilities laid out in their Warhammer Armies book. Certain special rules partly consist of other special rules, all mentioned in the following pages.

Unless otherwise noted, the effects of different special rules are cumulative. However, unless otherwise stated, a model gains no additional benefit from having the same special rule multiple times. This also applies to unique special rules in the various Warhammer Armies books that might contain special rules that are normally cumulative.

Some special rules have an effect at the beginning of the battle, or before the game starts. These effects take place after both armies are deployed and any Deployment special rules have occurred but before the roll for first turn.

Some special rules, especially in the Army Books, will affect models of a certain type. Note that special rules and spells such as this only ever affect friendly units from their own army, and will not affect enemy or allied units that happen to be in range.

Eventually you are likely to come upon situations where two opposing special rules are in play. In these cases, the two special rules will simply cancel each other out either partially or completely, and neither will have an effect.

Fear(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

Some creatures are so large or disturbing that they provoke an irrational fear in the foe.

A unit containing one or more Fear-causing models gains +1 to its Combat Resolution score. If the Unit Strength of all Fear-causing models is double or more that of the total Unit Strength of all enemy units in base contact, the Combat Resolution score is increased by +2. Note that the bonus from Fear is otherwise not cumulative for having multiple units with the Fear special rule involved in the same combat.

If the majority of the models in a unit cause Fear, they also gain the Immunity (Fear) special rule (described later), and thus the Combat Resolution bonus of their Fear-causing enemies is ignored for that unit.

Fly(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

Some creatures of the Warhammer world have wings and can fly, soaring quickly from one side of the battlefield to the other. Such creatures are often potent forces on the battlefield, able as they are to easily outmanoeuvre clumsier, ground-bound troops.

Because of their loose fighting style, flying models follow the rules for Skirmishers (explained later in this chapter). However, they cannot use Feigned Flight (already described in Fast Cavalry), and if they have a Unit Strength above 2 and/or a close combat armour save better than 4+, they cannot use the Vanguard special rule (explained later in this chapter).

Moving Flyers

In Warhammer, flight is represented by a swoop or glide equal to the number in the brackets instead of using the model's normal Movement value. Note that any equipment or special rules that affect the model's regular Movement will also affect its Fly move, unless specified. The flyer starts off on the ground, takes off, flies to where it wishes to go, and then lands. Flyers, therefore, begin and end their movement on the ground. This is chiefly because it's impractical to suspend models over the battlefield, so we use the 'glide' for the sake of simplicity.

Units made up entirely of models that can fly can move or charge normally on the ground, using their Movement value, or instead choose to fly. A unit that flies can move over other units and terrain as it does so, treating the entire move as taking place over open ground. It may not finish the move on top of another unit or in impassable terrain. Models that Fly can make a flying charge over intervening units and terrain as long as they can draw Line of Sight to their target as normal. A unit that makes a flying charge does so using its Fly move as its Movement characteristic, using the Swiftstride special rule (explained later in this chapter).

Flying March

A unit that is flying can march as normal, doubling its flying move, representing a particularly long swoop or glide.

Flee and Pursue

Flyers always move on the ground when attempting to flee or pursue – there simply is no time for them to take off properly.

Ambushers(Main Rulebook, p. 72)

There are those troops who specialise in outflanking the foe, appearing from an unexpected quarter to wreak maximum damage.

Before starting deployment, a unit with the Ambushers special rule can choose to not deploy at the start of the battle. Instead, from Turn 2 onwards, the controlling player rolls a dice at the start of their turn for each unit of their Ambushers that have yet to arrive. On a 1 or 2, the Ambushers have been delayed - roll for them again next turn. On a 3 or more, the unit of Ambushers arrives, and will enter the board during the Remaining Moves sub-phase. If the Ambushers do not turn up for the entire game, they are assumed to have got lost, and are treated as having fled the battle for the purposes of determining the victor.

Arriving Ambushers enter the battlefield from any point on any battlefield edge, and move on using the rules for reinforcements. Note that a character may only join a unit deploying with the Ambushers special rule if they also have the same rule.

In addition, for every Core unit that deploys as Ambushers in your army, you are required to include at least one other Core Unit that is not Expendable (described later in this chapter) and that does not deploy using the Ambushers rule (for more information, see the Choosing Your Army chapter).

Hidden(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Some creatures use stealth and secrecy to hide among the ranks of their allies, ready to strike at the unsuspecting foe.

Hidden models can choose to deploy ‘hidden’ within another friendly ranked unit, either the unit it belongs to (determined in each army list) or in other separate units (the army book in question will state which units) – make a note of which unit is concealing the hidden model(s).

A hidden model is not placed on the table during deployment, but is revealed later during the game. If the concealing unit is wiped out or flees from the battlefield before the hidden model is revealed, the hidden model counts as a casualty. There is no other way a hidden model can be harmed before they are revealed.

Hidden models may be revealed at the beginning of any of your Movement phases, or at the start of any Close Combat phase. Declare that the unit contains a hidden model and place the model in the front rank of that unit, displacing models as you normally would if a character had joined the unit (see Characters chapter).

A model with this special rule cannot be your army General. Furthermore, other units can never use their Leadership value.

Impact Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

The impact of a charge can itself sometimes cause severe casualties amongst the foe.

The number of Impact Hits caused varies from creature to creature, or troop type to troop type, but is shown in brackets after the special rule. If a creature is granted two sets of Impact Hits, normally because its troop type and special rules both bestow Impact Hits, use the highest set, rather than a total, before rolling. If a unit contains more than one model that inflicts a random amount of Impact Hits (such as D6), always roll separately for each model.

Impact Hits are only made on the turn the model makes a successful charge into close combat, and only against the unit the model has charged. Impact Hits are resolved at the very beginning of the close combat, before challenges are issued and attacks of any other kind are made. They hit a unit in base contact and are randomised as Automatic Hits. If the model is in base contact with more than one unit, randomise the Impact Hits between them as evenly as possible. If the model with Impact Hits is not in base contact with the enemy, no Impact Hits are inflicted.

Impact Hits roll to wound using the Strength of the model making the Impact Hits. Any armour saves taken are done using the close combat value of the armour, and Parry saves may not be taken (see Weapons and Armour). Any Wounds caused by Impact Hits are counted towards combat resolution.

Unless specified, any special rules that apply to the model's normal attacks do not apply to its Impact Hits.

Stupidity(Main Rulebook, p. 83)

Some creatures are so dull of mind that even the battlefield can sometimes leave them rather distracted and confused.

Provided that they are not engaged in close combat, a unit that contains one or more models with the Stupidity special rule must take a Leadership test at the start of its Movement phase. If the test is passed, the unit will act normally this turn.

If the test is failed, it moves directly forwards using the Random Movement (D6) special rule in the Compulsory Movement sub-phase. The Stupid unit cannot take any further action that turn, so cannot declare charges or make a shooting attack. However, a unit that has failed a Stupidity test can still be forced to move, or perform any other action, by a spell, or other special rule/magic item.

Until they pass the Stupidity test again, models that have failed their Stupidity test have the Immunity (Psychology) and Random Movement (D6) special rule, except that they can only move directly forwards. They cannot choose to do a combat reform or choose any other charge reaction except Hold. In addition, Wizards cannot attempt to cast/dispel or channel power dice or dispel dice.

Stomp(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Some creatures are so massive that their sheer bulk is a threat all of its own. Particularly massive monsters have an altogether devastating stomp.

A model with this special rule can make a Stomp in addition to its other close combat attacks (including Breath Weapons). A Stomp has the Always Strikes Last special rule, and inflicts D6 (or D3 against lone Infantry models and skirmishers) automatic hits, at the model's Strength, on one enemy Infantry, War Beasts or Swarm unit in base contact with the model and are randomised as Automatic Hits. This represents the creature crushing the foe beneath its ponderous feet, or knocking their broken bodies aside with one sweep of its mighty tail (probably while it's roaring in a most intimidating fashion).

Unless specified, any special rules that apply to the model's normal attacks do not apply to its Stomps.

Multiple Wounds(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

The most powerful attacks strike home with crushing force, and cause massive damage to their victim.

Each wound inflicted by an attack with the Multiple Wounds special rule (after saves) is multiplied into more than one wound (remember that a model cannot suffer more wounds than it has on its profile). The exact number of wounds caused will vary from model to model and weapon to weapon, but will normally be shown in brackets as part of the special rule. For example, Multiple Wounds (2) would mean that each unsaved wound would multiply to 2 wounds, whilst Multiple Wounds (D6) would mean that each unsaved wound would multiply to D6 wounds. If a model is granted two sets of Multiple Wounds (like D3 and D6), use only the highest set before rolling.

Where the number of Multiple Wounds is generated by a dice roll, roll a dice separately for each unsaved wound and use the total of all the dice rolled for the final number of wounds inflicted.

Unless otherwise specified, Multiple Wounds only apply to close combat attacks.

Mixed Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Some armies drive beasts or slaves into to battle, with cruel masters harrying at their heels as they goad their underlings into the foe.

A Mixed Unit most often consist of two different Troop Types, with one or more handlers that drive the rest of the unit forward. The handler(s) must be deployed in the rear rank(s) of the unit, as centrally as possible. Mixed Units cannot be joined by characters, unless specified.

If a Mixed unit is required to take a characteristic test, this is done using the characteristics of the unit itself, not the handlers. The only exception is Leadership tests, which are taken using the unit’s highest Leadership value. When the models in a unit with the Mixed Unit special rule have different Movement allowances, the handlers Movement value is ignored, unless they are the only models remaining. Any special rules that the unit might have do not apply to the Handlers unless specified. Note that if the unit has the Expendable, Swiftstride or Vanguard special rules, this also applies to the Handlers.

As long as the unit (but not the handlers) have a unit strength of 5 or more, any missile hits are resolved against the unit itself. At less than unit strength 5, there is a chance that any handlers in the unit could be hit – the controlling player decides who is hit, but must allocate one hit on each model before they can add a second hit on a model; they must allocate two hits on each model before they can allocate a third, and so on. Hits from templates are resolved against the handlers as normal. In close combat, the handlers can only be attacked by models who are in base contact with them.

Magic Resistance(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Through natural quirk or potent artefact, some warriors have an innate resistance to magical attack.

A model with Magic Resistance gains a bonus to dispel enemy spells directly targeting it (not including templates that are placed on top of it) as well as a Ward save against damage caused by spells. This bonus is based on the number shown in brackets after the Magic Resistance special rule. So, Magic Resistance (1) would give a +1 bonus to dispel rolls and a 6+ Ward save, Magic Resistance (2) would give a +2 bonus to dispel rolls and a 5+ Ward save, and Magic Resistance (3) would give a +3 bonus to dispel rolls and a 4+ Ward save, etc. Note that Magical Resistance does not offer protection against Miscasts.

If a character with Magic Resistance joins a unit, all models in the unit benefit from the Magic Resistance as long as they are part of the unit. If a model or unit has two sets of Magic Resistance, the two combine to a maximum of Magic Resistance (3), unless specified.

Lightning Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

Lightning is especially dangerous to those wearing metal armour, being burnt to a crisp by the energies unleashed.

Lightning Attacks have the Ignores Armour Saves special rule against all armour types except Natural Armour.

Unless otherwise stated, a model with this special rule has both Lightning shooting and close combat attacks (though any spells cast by the model or special attacks are unaffected).

Fast Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

Fast cavalry (sometimes called light cavalry) are riders of exceptional prowess, trained in lightning-fast manoeuvres and flank attacks. They are more lightly armed and armoured than other cavalry, but make up for this with their flexibility. In battle, they act as scouts and outriders for the army, and harry the flanks of enemy formations.

Vanguard

Fast Cavalry are inevitably at the forefront of any advance – Fast Cavalry automatically have the Vanguard deployment special rule (described later in this chapter).

Free Reform

Unless it charges, a Fast Cavalry unit is allowed to reform twice during its move without losing any Movement; once before they move, and at the end of their move. The unit may do this even if it marches, provided that no model ends up moving a number of inches higher than double its Movement value.

Fire & Flee

A unit of Fast Cavalry armed with missile weapons that chooses Flee! as a charge reaction can choose to fire their weapons first. If it chooses to do so, the unit will first fire upon the target following the rules for Stand & Shoot (this also counts as moving and shooting). After this, the unit makes a flee move. However, it may not use its Swiftstride special rule (explained later in this chapter) if it does so.

Feigned Flight

A unit of Fast Cavalry that chooses Flee or Fire & Flee as a charge reaction does not cause Panic from fleeing through friendly units and may re-roll failed rally tests in its next Compulsory Movement Phase (unless it is forced to Flee again from another source). In addition, it is then also free to move during the remaining moves part of the Movement phase. The unit is also free to shoot as normal (but always counts as having moved). Note that if the flee move of the Fast Cavalry does not take them beyond the charge reach of their enemies, the unit suffers casualties as normal.

Fire on the March

Fast Cavalry armed with missile weapons are experts at shooting from horseback and can therefore shoot during a turn in which they marched or reformed (providing their weapon doesn't have the Move or Fire special rule). However, the normal -1 To Hit penalty for moving and shooting still applies.

Characters

A character model that joins a unit of Fast Cavalry gains the Fast Cavalry special rule as long as they stay with the unit. Characters may only join Fast Cavalry with the same Troop Type (explained in the Troop Types chapter) as them.

Armour Saves

Units containing one or more models with an unmodified close combat armour save better than 4+ cannot use the Fast Cavalry special rule.

Terror(Main Rulebook, p. 83)

There are creatures so large and horrifying, or supernatural horrors so unholy and terrible, that their mere appearance on the battlefield can cause the bravest and most steadfast of veterans to turn tail and flee.

Models that cause Terror also cause Fear. In addition, the following rules apply. Fear-causing models or models with Immunity (Fear) treat Terror-causing monsters as causing Fear, rather than Terror – this is an exception to the rule that makes Fear-causing creatures immune to Fear. Terror-causing models have the Immunity (Fear/Terror) special rule.

Run for Your Lives!

If a Terror-causing creature declares a charge, the target unit must immediately take a Panic test. If the test is passed, all is well and the unit can declare charge reactions normally. If the test is failed, the unit must make a Flee! charge reaction. Note that, if the target unit is not allowed to take any charge reaction (if, for example, the Terror-causing unit charged as a result of a pursuit or a random move), then the target does not take this test.

If a unit wishes to declare a charge against an enemy that causes Terror, it must take a Psychology test to overcome its terror first. If the test is failed, it may not declare the charge against the Terror-causing unit, but may choose to declare a charge against another unit following the rules for Redirecting a Charge. If the Psychology test is passed, the unit may declare the charge as normal.

Swiftstride(Main Rulebook, p. 83)

Just as not all warriors are not equal in their might and resolve, so too are some fleeter of foot.

When charging, units entirely made of models with the Swiftstride special rule and Movement 7 or higher roll 3D6, discard the lowest result, and add the result to their Movement value. When fleeing or pursuing, they roll 3D6, and discard the lowest result.

When charging, units entirely made of models with the Swiftstride special rule and Movement 6 or lower roll 2D6, and add the result to their Movement value. When fleeing or pursuing, they roll 2D6.

Movement Type

Swiftstride M6 or lower

Swiftstride M7 or more

Charging

Movement + 2D6

Movement + 3D6 (discard the lowest)

Failed Charge

2D6

3D6 (discard the lowest)

Fleeing

2D6

3D6 (discard the lowest)

Pursuing

2D6

3D6 (discard the lowest)

Unbreakable(Main Rulebook, p. 83)

Some creatures are utterly fearless, and will never give up a battle, no matter how hopeless the situation. This is occasionally due to bravery, but more commonly because the troops in question are mindless, insane or magically controlled.

Models with this special rule have the Immunity (Psychology) special rule and pass Break tests automatically. However, they may never choose Flee! as a charge reaction. Pride, or a sluggish acceptance of the situation, prevents them from doing so.

Characters that are Unbreakable may only join units that are also Unbreakable, and characters that are not Unbreakable are not permitted to join units that are Unbreakable (even if a character is Unstable – explained below – or was to become temporarily Unbreakable for some reason).

Strider(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Some well-trained or naturally skilled warriors can traverse unhindered through the densest terrain.

Models with the Strider special rule are rare – normally, they will have a subset of Strider, such as Forest Strider or Marsh Strider and the rule only applies in terrain of the specified type. Models with the Strider rule treat that piece of terrain as open ground for the purposes of Movement, meaning they ignore any Movement penalties or Dangerous Terrain tests otherwise caused by it. Note that they still follow the rules for that terrain type in terms of combat.

Stubborn(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Some troops will fight on in close combat almost regardless of casualties. This can be because they consider themselves to be elite, have taken severe vows to hold their ground in combat or are simply too slow-witted to flee when defeated by superior troops!

A unit is considered Stubborn if the majority of the models in a unit have this special rule. A Stubborn unit is always Steadfast, whether or not they have a higher Unit Strength than their enemy or are disrupted.

Flammable(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

Some creatures are naturally vulnerable to fire. Once flame has been set amongst such a beast's flesh, it will run rampant, causing terrible harm.

If a model with the Flammable rule is attacked with a Flaming Attack, all failed To Wound rolls made by the attackers may be re-rolled.

Regeneration(Main Rulebook, p. 80)

Trolls and other particularly hardy creatures can regenerate damage at an incredible rate.

A model with the Regeneration special rule gains a Ward Save (indicated by the number in the brackets). This is cumulative with other sources of Regeneration. Regeneration may not be used against Flaming Attacks, successful Killing Blow (including Heroic Killing Blow) or wounds caused due the unit being Unstable.

Parry(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

Even the mightiest axe strike can be turned aside at the last moment if the timing is right.

Models with this rule gain a Ward save in close combat as indicated in the brackets. This is cumulative with other sources of Parry. It cannot be used against attacks made against the model's flank or rear (they do not have enough freedom of movement to turn around quickly enough), nor can it be used against attacks that Hit automatically, attacks that are made at +3 Strength over the model's own Strength value, nor can it be used by mounted models, unless specified.

Dodge(Main Rulebook, p. 73)

Some creatures are naturally quick and agile, allowing them to avoid dangers by dodging out of harm's way.

Models with this rule gain a Ward save against attacks in their front arc (including templates, Stomp and Impact Hits) as indicated in the brackets. This is cumulative with other sources of Dodge. This cannot be used against Magical Attacks that Hit automatically (such as spells or certain special rules), or that have the Always Strikes First special rule, nor can it be used if the model is subject to the Always Strikes Last special rule. Finally, Dodge cannot be used by mounted models, unless specified.

Unstable(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

Many warriors in the Warhammer world are not alive in the true sense, but are magical constructs bound to the will of a wizard. The magic that empowers unstable creatures is prone to ebbing and flowing with the tide of battle. The more heavily beset the unstable creatures are, the more likely that the magic that binds them will fade away.

Unstable units are Unbreakable, and suffer one extra Wound for every point they have lost of the round of combat by, with no saves of any kind permitted against these wounds. If an Unstable unit would normally be eligible to be Steadfast, they instead suffer 1 less Wound than they would normally do.

Unlike Unbreakable units, Unstable characters may join Unstable units. If an Unstable unit also contains Unstable characters, the controlling player first allocates wounds to the unit, then divides any remaining wounds (if any) as equally as possible amongst the characters.

Scouts(Main Rulebook, p. 80)

Scouts are advance troops who sneak onto the battlefield in order to seize vital locations before the two armies clash.

Before starting deployment, a unit with the Scouts special rule can choose to not deploy at the start of the battle. Scouts are set up after all other non-Scout units from both armies have been deployed, and do not count toward determining who finished deploying their army first. They can be set up either in their controlling player's deployment zone as normal, or anywhere on the battlefield more than 12" away from the enemy. If deployed in this second way, Scouts cannot declare a charge in the first turn if their side goes first.

Note that a character may only join a unit deploying with the Scouts special rule if they also have the same rule.

If both players' armies contain Scouts, players should roll off. The players then alternate deploying their scouting units one at a time, starting with the player who won the roll-off.

Magical Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Some creatures are magical by nature, others use magical spells, yet others wield magical weapon to defeat their foes.

All attacks made by spells and magic items are considered to be magical attacks, as are all attacks that are specifically noted as being magical attacks. Shots fired from magical items are also considered to be magical attacks, unless their description specifically states otherwise. Hits inflicted by rolls on the Miscast table are treated as magical attacks. Note that spells are never considered to be physical attacks.

Move or Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Some weapons sacrifice a speedy reload for hitting power, making them impossible to fire on the move.

A weapon with the Move or Fire special rule cannot be fired in the Shooting phase if the model moved earlier in the turn, including rallying, reforming and pivoting on the spot (except for Lone Models, who can pivot and fire in the same turn). This even applies if the model in question was forced to move as the result of a spell or other such compulsory action. Mounted models with Move or Fire weapons may still move and fire, but they may not March if they do so, unless specified.

Loremaster(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

There are some wizards whose knowledge of their chosen discipline is all-encompassing.

A Wizard with the Loremaster special rule knows all the available spells from their chosen lore (limited by their Wizard level as normal). The lore in question is normally given in brackets as part of the Loremaster special rule. If a model knows spells from multiple Lores, then Loremaster only applies to one Lore of your choice.

Large Target(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

Some mighty creatures tower over the battlefield, able to see and be seen over the heads of more diminutive warriors.

Large Targets are models that are especially tall for their Troop Type. Such foes cannot easily take cover behind obstacles that would shelter lesser troops. Models with this special rule have a Line of Sight value equal to the number in the bracket. This replaces their normal Line of Sight value normally assigned for their Troop Type. For more information about Troop Types, see the Troop Types chapter.

Heroic Killing Blow(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

Heroic Killing Blow functions exactly like a normal Killing Blow, except it works on any Troop type except for Swarms.

Breath Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 72)

Some creatures have the ability to belch clouds of flame or noxious choking fumes at their foes. Dragons are the most famous of such beasts, but they are by no means alone.

A model with a Breath Weapon can use it to make a special attack once per shooting or close combat phase. A model with two or more different Breath Weapons must choose which one they want to use. The form that this special attack takes depends on whether or not the creature is in close combat. In the event that a model has more than one Breath Weapon attack, it is permitted to attempt to use only one in a single turn.

However, after each Breath Weapon has been used the first time, roll a D6 before attempting to use it again in later rounds. On 4+, it may be used as normal. On a 1-3, the model is literally out of breath, and cannot use its Breath Weapon this round. It may choose to attack normally in close combat instead.

Note that Breath Weapons are not physical attacks, and certain models may be Immune to the effects of some Breath Weapons. However, all Breath weapons have the Ignores Cover special rule.

Breath Weapon Shooting Attack

Provided the model is not in close combat, it can use its Breath Weapon during its Shooting phase. A Breath Weapon shooting attack can be made even if the model marched or reformed during the same turn, but it cannot be used as a Stand and Shoot charge reaction.

To perform the attack, place the flame template so that it lies entirely within the model's forward arc, with the narrow end touching the model's base, and so that it is not touching any friendly units or enemy units that are in close combat. All models that are even partially under the template are automatically hit, following the normal rules for the flame template. The Strength and any special effects of the creature's Breath Weapon will be covered in its rules.

The teardrop-shaped template is placed with the thin end at the model's base and the wide end over the target unit. In this example 9 models are under the template and so are hit automatically.

Breath Weapon Close Combat Attack

If the model with this special rule is in close combat, it can use the Breath Weapon instead of using its normal attacks. A model that makes a breath weapon attack in this way inflicts 2D6 automatic hits (resolved like shooting) on a single enemy unit in base contact – if there is more than one enemy unit in base contact with the model, the controlling player chooses which enemy unit suffers the hits. Note that no single model in the target unit may be Hit more than once from the same breath weapon attack – any excess hits are ignored. As with breath weapon attacks made in the Shooting phase, the Strength and any special effects of the creature's Breath Weapon will be covered in its rules, any other special rules do not apply. Wounds caused by a Breath Weapon in close combat count towards combat resolution.


Ignores Armour Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Some attacks are able to bypass armour completely, be it due to Troll Vomit, boiling liquid or magical spells.

If a model has this special rule, no armour saves may be taken at all, unless otherwise noted. Ward saves may be taken as normal.

Fight in Extra Ranks(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

These troops can fight in extra ranks, perhaps because they have been trained to do so, or because their sheer ferocity means they willingly trample their comrades in order to reach the foe.

If a unit has this special rule then supporting attacks can be made by one more rank than normal for each number indicated in the bracket. This rule is cumulative with other sources of Fight in Extra Ranks.

Quick to Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

Not all weapons are cumbersome – some can be brought to bear in less than a heartbeat, and let fly shortly after.

Quick to Fire weapons do not suffer the usual -1 To Hit penalty for moving and shooting. In addition, Quick to Fire weapons can always be used to Stand and Shoot against a charging enemy, even if that enemy would normally be too close for such a charge reaction to be declared.

Furthermore, Quick to Fire weapons may be used once per turn when declaring a charge (unless they are also Move or Fire), immediately after the enemy unit has declared their charge reaction (but before moving any units). If the enemy unit chose to Stand & Shoot or Fire & Flee, both units will fire at the same time. Quick to Fire weapons can be used this way even if the unit starts its charge outside their weapons' maximum range – the shooting is resolved normally assuming the enemy is just within maximum range of the shooting unit's shortest-ranged weapon. If the charge fails, for whatever reason, we assume that the chargers closed to within the weapons' maximum range first. Any shots fired in this manner suffer a -1 To Hit penalty.

Ethereal(Main Rulebook, p. 73)

There are creatures whose physical bodies have long since rotted away, if indeed they ever existed. Such beings are immune to normal weapons – only magic can harm them.

Ethereal creatures treat all terrain as open terrain for the purposes of movement. They may not finish their movement inside impassable terrain. They are also never slowed by any special rule, spell or item that would otherwise reduce their movement or stop them from moving completely.

Models with this special rule have both the Magical Attacks and Unstable special rules. Ethereal models have a 2+ Ward Save against mundane attacks. However, they only have a 5+ Ward Save against Magical Attacks. Ethereal creatures block line of sight normally and cannot see through anything that would block the line of sight of normal units. Characters that are not themselves Ethereal are not permitted to join units that are (even if they become temporarily Ethereal for some reason).

Expendable(Main Rulebook, p. 73)

Some units are practically considered worthless by the rest of the army, either due to their low status or being simple beasts, and no heed is paid to their demise.

Models with this special rule do not cause Panic to friendly units that are not Expendable themselves. Characters may not join a unit with this rule, unless specified. Likewise, an Expendable character may not join a unit that is not Expendable.

For every Core unit with the Expendable special rule in your army, you are required to include at least one other Core Unit without the Expendable rule. For more information on this, see the Choosing Your Army chapter.

Flaming Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

Fire is a fearsome thing on the battlefield, but some creatures are more vulnerable to it than others.

Models with Flaming Attacks cause Fear in War Beasts, Cavalry, Chariots and Flammable creatures. Any Panic test taken by any of these Troop Types from a Flaming Attack suffer -1 to their Leadership when taking the test.

Unless otherwise stated, a model with this special rule has both Flaming shooting and close combat attacks (though any spells cast by the model or special attacks are unaffected).

Frenzy(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

Certain warriors can work themselves up into a fighting frenzy, a whirlwind of destruction in which all concern for personal safety is overridden in favour of mindless violence.

To represent their fighting fury and lack of self-preservation instincts, Frenzied troops gain +1 Attack and the Immunity (Psychology) special rule.

Berserk Rage

A unit that includes one or more Frenzied models can only choose Hold or Stand & Shoot as a charge reaction.

If, during the Charge sub-phase, a unit that includes one or more Frenzied models could declare a charge, then it must do so unless a Leadership test is passed. If the Leadership test is failed, the Frenzied unit must declare a charge against the nearest viable enemy.

A unit that includes one or more Frenzied models that attempts to restrain pursuit if it beats a foe in close combat suffer a Leadership modifier equal to the result they won the combat against that unit by. For example, if the Frenzied unit won the combat by 3 and the enemy unit flees, the Frenzied unit suffers -3 to its Leadership if it attempts to restrain from pursuing.

Losing Frenzy

Unlike other special rules, Frenzy can be lost as the game goes on. Models retain their Frenzy for the entire game unless beaten in combat, at which point the enemy have succeeded in knocking them into a less fanatical state and the Frenzy (together with all associated rules) is lost.

Ice Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Ice attacks slows down the foe and weaken them, making them easier targets.

Models with the Ice Attacks special rule cause all enemy models in base contact with them to be subject to the Always Strikes Last special rule. Spells or missile attacks that are Ice Attacks cause the enemy to be subject to the Always Strikes Last special rule until the start of your next turn if they are successfully cast or Hit. Models with Ice Attacks have Immunity (Ice Attacks).

Unless otherwise stated, a model with this special rule has Ice Attacks for both shooting and close combat, (though any spells cast by the model or special attacks are unaffected).

Immunity(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Some warriors and creatures in the Warhammer world are almost completely fearless, or are such grizzled veterans that situations that would make lesser troops panic have no effect on them. Others have an immunity to certain elements, either by a natural mutation or by magic.

Models with the Immunity rule ignore the effects of the rule(s) in the brackets. Examples include Killing Blow, Poisoned Attacks, Flaming Attacks, Ice Attacks, Lightning Attacks and so on. Note that the model only ignores the effects of the rule itself unless the attack is also listed as being non-physical. The physical attack still causes damage as normal.

Immunity can also include PanicFear and Terror. If the majority of the models in a unit have the Immunity (Panic, Fear or Fear) rule, the unit ignores the effects of Panic, Fear or Terror and any such tests it would otherwise had to take.

Models that are Immune to all three above effects have the Immunity (Psychology) rule. This also includes automatically passing any Psychology tests they might need to take (such as many spell effects or special rules that would otherwise force a unit to take a Psychology test).

Killing Blow(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

Tales are told of warriors who can slay their opponents with but a single strike of a blade that seeks an armour's merest gap. Whether such an attack is wrought by skill or sorcery matters not – the target is just as dead.

If a model with the Killing Blow special rule rolls a 6 to wound, they automatically slay their opponent – regardless of the number of wounds on the victim's profile. Armour saves and Regeneration saves cannot be taken against a Killing Blow. Ward saves may be taken as normal.

Killing Blow is only effective against Infantry, Cavalry and War beasts. Against other troop types, a successful Killing Blow only inflicts one Wound which Ignores Armour Saves and Regeneration.

Note that if a Killing Blow attack wounds automatically, then the Killing Blow special rule does not come into play. Unless otherwise specified, Killing Blow only applies to close combat attacks.

For the purposes of combat resolution, successful Killing Blows score the same amount of Wounds as the slain model had remaining until the point of the Killing Blow was inflicted.

Poisoned Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

There are many warriors who use deadly toxins to overcome their foes, turning an otherwise minor injury into a mortal wound.

A model with the Poisoned Attacks special rule gets a +1 modifier to its To Wound rolls. For example, if they would normally need to roll a 4+ To Wound, a model with Poisoned Attacks only need to roll a 3+ To Wound. Armour saves are modified by the Strength of the attack as normal.

Unless otherwise stated, a model with this special rule has both Poisoned shooting and close combat attacks (though any spells cast by the model or special attacks are unaffected).

Random Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 80)

Some creatures do not advance in an even manner, rushing forward at one moment, only to falter clumsily in the next.

Models with the Random Movement special rule do not have a normal Movement characteristic, but rather a dice roll, such as D6, 2D6 or 3D6 (as indicated in the brackets). This is the distance they move, charge, pursue, overrun and flee – they cannot march. If a model has the Random Movement and Swiftstride special rules (a chariot with Random Movement, for example), then the Swiftstride special rule is not used. Note that certain Random Movement rolls can result in the model having a Movement value higher than 10 – this is an exception to the usual maximum.

Models with Random Movement cannot declare charges, and must always move in the Compulsory Moves sub-phase. When the model moves, first pivot it about its centre to face the direction in which you wish it to travel. Then, roll the dice shown in the Random Movement brackets. Finally, move the model directly forwards a number of inches equal to the total rolled by the dice. No other pivots can be made.

There's a chance that the model's peculiar movement will cause it to come into contact with an enemy, so measure the distance in a straight line before the model is moved. If the move is found to take the unit’s front arc into contact with an enemy, then it counts as charging, and this is resolved using the normal rules for charges and using the distance rolled as its charge range. Charge reactions cannot be declared against enemies with the Random Movement special rule.

If the random move brings the unit to within 1" of a friendly unit or impassable terrain, it stops immediately and cannot move further during that Movement phase.

If two or more models in a unit have the Random Movement special rule, pivot the unit about its centre, then roll the dice only once to determine how for the unit moves. If models in the unit have a different Random Movement value, use the slowest for the entire unit.

A Random Move counts as a ‘normal’ move for triggering a Dangerous Terrain test, unless the model is making a charge, pursuit or flee move, in which case it counts as a move of the appropriate type.

Skirmishers(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

Skirmishers are light infantry troops sent ahead of the main battleline in a dispersed formation. Such troops are normally no match for a ranked-up unit, but can be used to harry and harass.

Skirmish Formation

Skirmishers are deployed in a 'loose' formation, where the models are not placed in base contact, but are positioned roughly 1/2" apart. The models in the unit must still face the same direction and the unit will still have a front, two flanks and a rear – essentially the only difference is that the models are slightly spaced out. This dispersed formation allows Skirmishers to move and shoot with greater freedom than other troop types. All Skirmishers in a unit do not count as blocking each other’s Line of Sight (note that they still count as blocking Line of Sight for other units). As long as you can draw a Line of Sight from the front rank to the target, the second and subsequent ranks may fire too.

Skirmishers & Charging

If skirmishers declare a charge (or a charge reaction that does not involve fleeing) they tighten their loose formation into a 'normal' formation after the charge distance is rolled and the chargers are moved. This happens 'for free' at the moment both units move into base contact. The unit immediately forms up in base contact around the centremost model in the front rank (the Skirmishers' controlling player can choose which if the front rank has an even number of models) that is also in base contact with the enemy.

The number of ranks, files and the formation's facing do not alter as the Skirmishers tighten up – all that happens is that models that were previously spaced out are now in base contact with one another. This has the effect of rendering the Skirmishers' loose formation into a regular shape so that other units can fight them in the normal way.

If the Skirmishers are not in base contact with an enemy in the Remaining Moves sub-phase, the controlling player must move them apart so that they readopt their loose formation.

1. Skirmishers form up to make or receive a charge as soon as they get into base contact with the enemy.
2. After ranking up, resolve the combat as normal.

Vanguard

Skirmishers are inevitably at the forefront of any advance – Skirmishers have the Vanguard deployment special rule (described later in this chapter).

Free Reform

A unit of Skirmishers moves, wheels, marches and charges just like other troops. However, unless it charges, a skirmishing unit is allowed to reform twice during its move; once before they move, and at the end of their move. The unit may do this even if it marches, provided that no model ends up moving a number of inches higher than double its Movement value.

Feigned Flight

A unit of Skirmishers that chooses Flee as a charge reaction does not cause Panic from fleeing through friendly units and may re-roll failed rally tests in its next Compulsory Movement Phase (unless it is forced to Flee again from another source). In addition, it is then also free to move during the remaining moves part of the Movement phase. The unit is also free to shoot as normal (but always counts as having moved). Note that if the flee move of the Skirmishers do not take them beyond the charge reach of their enemies, the unit suffers casualties as normal.

Remember that Feigned Flight does not apply to models with the Fly special rule.

Fire on the March

Skirmishers can shoot even if they marched or reformed earlier in the turn (providing their weapon doesn't have the Move or Fire special rule). However, the normal -1 To Hit penalty for moving and shooting still applies.

Light Troops

Skirmishers' natural inclination to a sparse formation makes them much less likely to suffer hits from missile fire – all shots aimed at a unit of two or more Skirmisher models with an individual Unit Strength of 2 or less suffer an additional -1 To Hit penalty. However, skirmishers simply lack the necessary mass to push forward onto the enemy and are easily overwhelmed by troops used to fighting in grinding melee. Skirmishers always counts as having zero ranks, and therefore cannot claim a rank bonus. In addition, they cannot be Steadfast regardless of their Unit Strength (unless they also have the Stubborn special rule described later).

Characters

A character model that joins a unit of Skirmishers gains the Skirmishers special rule as long as they stay with the unit. Characters may only join Skirmishers with the same Troop Type as them.

Sniper(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Most shooting attacks are not aimed at specific foes, but fired indiscriminately into a knot of troops. Those shots aimed more carefully are greatly feared, for no chieftain or general is safe from their vengeance.

A model with the Sniper special rule can make a special Sniper shot instead of shooting normally (though it can be used in combination with the Multiple Shots rule as normal). A Sniper shot suffers an additional -1 To Hit penalty, in addition to any other modifiers, but can be aimed with great precision. Unless making a Stand and Shoot charge reaction, a model making a Sniper shot can shoot at a different target from the one chosen by their unit. A hit from a Sniper shot is not distributed in the same manner as other shooting attacks. The Sniper can shoot at any model they can see, including characters within a unit. "Look Out, Sir!" cannot be used. Sniper cannot be used when firing weapons that use a template.

Vanguard(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

An army's vanguard troops advance to engage the foe before their comrades. Sometimes this is a point of honour, sometimes because they are eager to fight the foe and occasionally because they are expendable, and their general wishes to tire the enemy out.

After both sides have deployed all their other forces (including Scouts), but before the roll to see who gets the first turn is made, units containing only models with the Vanguard special rule can immediately make a move up to 6" (12" in case they move using the Swiftstride special rule) move regardless of their Movement value (they cannot march and are affected by terrain as normal). This cannot be used to move the Vanguard troops within 12" of the enemy. A Vanguard move does not count as moving for the purpose of shooting in the first turn.

If both players' armies contain Vanguard troops, players should roll off. The players then alternate moving their Vanguard units one at a time, starting with the player who won the roll-off.

Units that have made a Vanguard move cannot declare a charge in the first turn if their army goes first. This also includes charging in the Magic phase.

If a character is deployed as part of a unit with the Vanguard special rule, that unit can still make its Vanguard move if the character in question has the Vanguard special rule or is a model on foot. Otherwise the character's presence prevents the unit from using
Vanguard.

Volley Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

Bows and other weapons can loose their projectiles a high-arcing volley. Even warriors who cannot see the foe can contribute to the attack by following suit to their friends.

Weapons with this rule allow the unit to fire with all models within range in the Shooting Phase as long as at least one model in the unit can draw Line of Sight to the target. However, if they do so, they suffer -1 To Hit. A unit cannot Volley Fire if it moved earlier in the turn or if the target is within half the weapon's maximum range. Note that Volley Fire cannot be used as Stand & Shoot charge reaction.

Strength Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Some creatures will fight with increased might in their initial clash with the foe, either by using heavy tiring weapons or building up momentum on the charge.

Models with this special rule gain a Strength bonus to all their close combat attacks (including Impact Hits and Stomps) equal to the number in the brackets in the first round of each new close combat they are involved in. Note that any attack made with a weapon that gives Strength Bonus only applies to attacks made with the weapon itself. This rule is cumulative with other sources of Strength Bonus.

Requires Two Hands(Main Rulebook, p. 80)

Many weapons are cumbersome to wield, requiring a firm two-handed grip in order to use effectively.

If a weapon requires two hands to use, it is not possible for a model to use a shield or buckler alongside it in close combat (although a shield can still be used against wounds caused by shooting or magic).

Slow to Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Some missile weapons are so cumbersome that they cannot aim swiftly enough to shoot a charging foe.

Weapons with the Slow to Fire special rule cannot be used to Stand and Shoot.

Random Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

Not all creatures fight with discipline, but flail about in an uncontrolled manner, with unpredictable consequences.

Models with the Random Attacks special rule do not have a normal number for their Attacks characteristic, but rather a dice roll, such as D3, D6 or D6+1. Each time a model with this special rule comes to strike blows, roll the indicated dice, adding any modifiers shown, to determine the number of attacks that the model will make, then roll to hit as normal. If a unit contains more than one model with this special rule, always roll separately for each model.

Natural Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

Many creatures have gnarled, tough or scaly skin that offers the same protection as wrought armour.

The hide of some creatures forms a kind of natural armour that grants the model an armour save. The degree of the armour save varies from model to model, and will be stated in the brackets. Natural Armour can be combined with other armour as normal, including other sources of Natural Armour.

Multiple Shots(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Some weapons are designed to fire a fusillade of shots, sacrificing accuracy for sheer volume.

A weapon with this special rule enables its wielder to fire several shots at a time, rather than a single shot. The number of shots the weapon can fire will normally be given as part of its description in the brackets. Such weapons can either fire once without penalty, or as many times as indicated in their rules with a -1 To Hit penalty (in addition to any other modifiers To Hit). War Machines with this special rule do not suffer -1 To Hit for firing Multiple Shots.

All models in the unit (excluding characters) must fire either single or Multiple Shots – the player cannot choose to fire single shots with some and Multiple Shots with others.

Ignores Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Some shooting attacks are incredibly precise, whether because they are magically guided, blanket the area with roiling flame or are merely aimed with impossible skill.

If a model's shooting attacks have the Ignores Cover special rule, they ignore To Hit penalties imposed by soft cover, hard cover and obstacles (other To Hit penalties apply as normal).

Hatred(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

Enmity is rife in the Warhammer world, where many races have nurtured grudges and animosities against others for thousands of years, and overwhelming hatred is a potent force in battle.

A model striking a hated foe in close combat re-rolls all failed To Hit rolls during the first round of combat – this represents the unit venting its pent-up hatred upon the foe. After this initial blood-mad hacking, the impetus is considered to be spent – the rest of the combat is fought normally. Sometimes a model will only Hate a specific foe. Where this is the case, the type of foe will be expressed in the special rule. In the case an enemy hates a certain faction, they have the Hatred rule against all models from that army book. In addition, they must also re-roll successful rolls to restrain from pursuit against enemies they have Hatred against. If a unit would gain Hatred in a round of close combat after the first for any reason, treat this as the first round of combat for that purpose.

Devastating Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 73)

Some creatures charge home with such fury that the very ground shakes beneath their feet.

Models with this special rule have +1 Attack during a turn in which they charge into combat.

Armour Piercing(Main Rulebook, p. 72)

Some attacks can penetrate armour with an ease that belies their meagre strength.

Wounds caused by a model with this special rule (or who is attacking with a weapon that has this special rule) inflict a further negative armour save modifier as indicated by the number in the brackets, in addition to those for Strength. Unless specified, Armour Piercing only applies to close combat attacks. This rule is cumulative with other sources of Armour Piercing.

If a model has a weapon with the Armour Piercing special rule, only attacks made or shots fired with the weapon are Armour Piercing.

Aquatic(Main Rulebook, p. 72)

Where other creatures struggle to fight and move in water, aquatic creatures excel.

Models with the Aquatic special rule can move within any area of water on the battlefield, including rivers and even deep water that players may have deemed impassable to other models, as if it were open ground. However, they are still subject to any special effects that specific terrain may have (e.g. we don't exempt Aquatic models from the dangers of marshes).

In addition, models with this special rule can march, claim rank bonus and be steadfast even when in water. Furthermore, if every model in a unit has the Aquatic special rule, and the majority of the unit is within water terrain, enemies shooting at that unit suffer an additional -1 To Hit penalty.

Animated Construct(Main Rulebook, p. 73)

Some creatures are not living beings, but constructs come to life through the use of powerful magic.

Animated Constructs have the Immunity (Poisoned Attacks) and Unbreakable special rules. However, they may not march.

Always Strikes Last(Main Rulebook, p. 71)

Some warriors are incredibly ponderous by nature, or else encumbered by magic that slow them down.

A model with this special rule always strikes last in close combat, regardless of Initiative. If a model with this rule is fighting an enemy with the same ability, the model with the higher Initiative will strike first. If a model has both this rule and Always Strikes First, the two cancel out and neither applies so use the model's Initiative.

In addition, if the model's Initiative is lower than their enemy's when it is their turn to attack, they must re-roll successful To Hit rolls when striking in close combat – they move so slowly that the foe can easily deflect their blows.

Always Strikes First(Main Rulebook, p. 71)

Some warriors are fast beyond belief and can strike with supernatural speed. Whether this ability is innate or the result of enchantment matters little to the foe, who is often slain before they have a chance to acknowledge the attack.

Models with this special rule always strike first in close combat, regardless of Initiative. If a model with this rule is fighting an enemy with the same ability, the model with the higher Initiative will strike first.

In addition, if the model's Initiative is higher than their enemy's when it is their turn to attack, they can re-roll failed To Hit rolls when striking in close combat – they move so fast that they can land their blows with incredible precision.

Troop Types(Main Rulebook, p. 85)

So far, the rules we've discussed cover the most important and most prevalent of troop types - infantry. We've started there because infantry are the 'standard' troop type in Warhammer. Of course, a Warhammer battlefield is home to all manner of weird and wonderful creatures, from charging knights to towering Giants, mighty cannons to multitudinous swarms. These more unusual troop types have particular rules attached to them, or use elements of the main rules in a different way to infantry, so let's take a moment to look at them now.

In most cases it'll be fairly obvious which troop type category a model falls into, but as troop type is essentially an extension of the characteristic profile, you'll find that information in the relevant Warhammer Armies book. Most units in Warhammer conform to one of the following types. Some particularly unusual units are literally in a class of their own - we call these 'unique' units. Such troop types have special rules that govern them and only them, clearly stated in their entry.

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 85)

In addition to their troop type, some models might also be noted as being characters. We're not going to worry about characters here, however – characters are such a powerful and important part of Warhammer that they have a chapter all to themselves later in the book.

Models and Base Sizes(Main Rulebook, p. 85)

Each model should be mounted on a base to determine the width and depth of the unit. Each Troop Type has different approved base sizes, which are listed below.

In some cases, you might be using a model that requires a larger base than described for its Troop Type. This is completely fine, as long as you try to keep it as close as possible to the normal approved base sizes. However, you may never have a base size that is smaller than the approved base sizes listed here.

Infantry(Main Rulebook, p. 85)

Infantry includes all units of foot troops, be they Men, Elves, Goblin, Orcs, Zombies or any of the other anthropomorphic races that inhabit the Warhammer world. Infantry will normally be the core of your Warhammer army, the troops upon which you rely to get the job done.

Ranks

A unit of Infantry is required to be five or more models wide in order to be able to gain rank bonus.

Unit Strength

Infantry have a Unit Strength of 1.

Line of Sight

Infantry have a Line of Sight value of 1.

Base Size

Infantry have an approved base size of 20x20mm, 25x25mm, 25x50mm, 30x30mm and 40x40mm.

Monstrous Infantry(Main Rulebook, p. 85)

The monstrous infantry category covers things like Trolls, Ogres and Minotaurs – creatures that are man-shaped and fight on foot, but are two or three times the size of normal infantrymen. We could perhaps have honestly called this category 'Big Infantry', but it does lack a certain gravitas. For the most part, monstrous infantry work exactly the same as normally infantry (i.e. follow the standard rules) but have a couple of extra facets to represent just how massive they are.

Ranks

As monstrous infantry are so much larger than normal troops, they require fewer warriors to fill out a rank. Where Infantry need at least five models in order to be able to gain rank bonus, a unit composed purely of monstrous infantry needs only three models. Essentially, wherever the rules say 'a rank of five or more models' treat it as reading 'a rank of three or more models'.

Supporting Attacks

A monstrous infantry model can make as many supporting attacks as are on its profile, up to a maximum of three, rather than the usual one supporting attack.

Special Rules

Monstrous Infantry are subject to the following special rules: FearSwiftstride.

Unit Strength

Monstrous Infantry have a Unit Strength of 3.

Line of Sight

Monstrous Infantry have a Line of Sight value of 2.

Base Size

Monstrous Infantry have an approved base size of 40x40mm or 50x50mm.

Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 86)

The term cavalry refers to roughly man-sized riders mounted on war beasts – commonly warhorses, or similar creatures. Good examples of cavalry are things such as Bretonnian Questing Knights, Orc Boar Boyz or Dark Elf Cold One Knights. Cavalry specialise in performing devastating charges, using the momentum of mount and rider to smash the enemy formation apart whilst skewering the unlucky foes with lance, spear or sword.

Split Profile

Although a cavalry model has two sets of characteristics, one for the rider and one for the mount, it is treated in all respects as a single model – the rider cannot dismount. When moving, the cavalry model always uses the Movement characteristic of the mount, and never that of the rider.

The rider and mount use their own Weapon Skill, Strength, Initiative and Attacks characteristics when they attack. Each can attack any opponent that the cavalry model is in base contact with.

We assume the rider to be in complete control of their mount, so the mount's Leadership is never used, unless a spell or special rule states otherwise.

If the rider has a missile weapon, they always use their own Ballistic Skill, rather than that of their mount.

When attacking a Cavalry model, always use the highest Weapon Skill, Toughness and Wounds value from either the rider or the mount.

If the rider and the mount both have armour saves or ward saves these may be combined as normal.

Any equipment or magic items the model might otherwise have only apply to the rider, not the mount (unless specified).

In some cases, you may find Cavalry models that do not have a split profile. In this case, treat the model as single entity that may make up to two supporting attacks. The model also counts as mounted for the purpose of using certain weapons, as described in the Weapons and Armour chapter, but counts as a model on foot for the purposes of using Parry.

Ranks

A unit of Cavalry is required to be five or more models wide in order to be able to gain rank bonus.

Supporting Attacks

A cavalry model can make one supporting attack from the rider, and one from the mount. Cavalry without a split profile can make up to two supporting attacks.

Special Rules

Cavalry are subject to the following special rules: Impact Hits (1)Swiftstride.

Note that the Impact Hits are resolved at the Strength of the mount, not the rider.

Any special rules listed for Cavalry units only apply to rider, unless they specifically mention the mount. There are, however, a few exceptions. If either the rider or the mount has one of the following special rules, then the whole model has it:

  • Always Strikes Last

  • Ambushers

  • Berserk Rage (see Frenzy)

  • Ethereal

  • Fast Cavalry

  • Fear

  • Fly

  • Immunity (*)

  • Scouts

  • Stubborn

  • Stupidity

  • Terror

  • Vanguard

Terrain

Cavalry have to take Dangerous Terrain tests if they move march, charge, flee or pursue over anything other than open ground or hills – Battlefield Terrain for more details.

Unit Strength

Cavalry have a Unit Strength of 2.

Line of Sight

Cavalry have a Line of Sight value of 2.

Base Size

Cavalry have an approved base size of 20x20mm, 25x25mm, 25x50mm, 40x40mm and 50x50mm.

Monstrous Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 87)

Just as horse-sized beasts can be pressed into service as mounts, so can their monstrous cousins. Such monstrous cavalry are incredibly rare, as most such creatures are so strong-willed that great patience (or violence) is needed to break them to the point at which they can safely be used as a mount. This combination of mass and stubborn muscle makes regiments of monstrous cavalry a much-feared force upon the battlefields of the Warhammer World.

All the Cavalry rules apply to monstrous cavalry.

Ranks

A rank of monstrous cavalry needs only three models to count for rank bonus.

Supporting Attacks

A monstrous cavalry model can make one supporting attack from the rider, and the mount can make as many supporting attacks as are on its profile, up to a maximum of three. Monstrous Cavalry without a split profile can make up to four supporting attacks.

Special Rules

Monstrous Cavalry are subject to the following special rules: FearImpact Hits (1)Swiftstride.

Unit Strength

Monstrous Cavalry have a Unit Strength of 4.

Line of Sight

Monstrous Cavalry have a Line of Sight value of 3.

Base Size

Monstrous Cavalry have an approved base size of 40x40mm, 50x50mm, 50x75mm and 50x100mm.

Swarms(Main Rulebook, p. 87)

Swarms are seething masses of small creatures, such as rats, snakes or insects, summoned to the battlefield by magical means and set loose upon the enemy. Individually, the critters in a swarm are little threat, but their sheer weight of numbers more than compensates for their size.

Swarms are made up of a number of bases. Each base includes many creatures, but counts as a single model. Other models can fire through them at targets behind them with no To Hit penalty. However, any Swarm base that is hit by a template attack suffers Multiple Wounds (D6) rather than 1.

Special Rules

Swarms are subject to the following special rules: ExpendableSkirmishersUnstable

Unit Strength

Swarms have a Unit Strength of 3.

Line of Sight

Swarms have a Line of Sight value of 0.

Base Size

Swarms have an approved base size of 40x40mm.

War Beasts(Main Rulebook, p. 87)

Some armies employ hunting animals, such as hounds or wolves. Whilst not particularly intelligent, such creatures can be formidable foes in close combat, and cover ground at an incredible rate.

Special Rules

War Beasts are subject to the following special rules: ExpendableSwiftstride, Vanguard.

Character Mount

Some characters can ride war beasts, in which case the model uses the rules for Cavalry.

Ranks

A unit of War Beasts is required to be five or more models wide in order to be able to gain rank bonus.

Unit Strength

War Beasts have a Unit Strength of 1.

Line of Sight

War Beasts have a Line of Sight value of 1.

Base Size

War Beasts have an approved base size of 20x20mm, 25x25mm, 25x50mm and 40x40mm.

Monstrous Beasts(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

There are many mighty and wondrous creatures in the Warhammer world that, whilst not large enough to classify as being full-blown earth-shaking monsters, are still formidable foes. We refer to such creatures as monstrous beasts.

Special Rules

Monstrous Beasts are subject to the following special rules: FearSwiftstride

Ranks

A rank of monstrous beasts needs only three models to count for rank bonus, steadfast and so on.

Supporting Attacks

A monstrous beast can make as many supporting attacks as are on its profile, up to a maximum of three.

Character Mount

Some characters can ride monstrous beasts, in which case the model uses the rules for Monstrous Cavalry.

Unit Strength

Monstrous Beasts have a Unit Strength of 3.

Line of Sight

Monstrous Beasts have a Line of Sight value of 2.

Base Size

Monstrous Beasts have an approved base size of 40x40mm, 50x50mm, 50x75mm and 50x100mm.

Monsters(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

Monsters are the largest beings in the Warhammer world, creatures so powerful that they normally don't form into units, but roam the battlefields on their own. Generally speaking, any single model bigger than a monstrous beast is a monster. This category includes Dragons, Greater Daemons and so on.

Special Rules

Monsters are subject to the following special rules: StompSwiftstrideTerror

Split Profile

Ridden monsters follow all the Split Profile rules for Cavalry. The riders can fire in 360 degrees around them, rather than only firing at targets within their front arc. This only applies to any missile weapons carried by the crew themselves, any missile weapons mounted on the monster itself can only fire in the model's forward arc as normal.

Character Mount

Some characters can ride monsters. If a character has a ridden monster, the whole model is treated as having the troop type monster and thus follows all the rules for both characters and monster models including the Split Profile rules above. A character on a ridden monster cannot join other units.

Unit Strength

Monsters have a Unit Strength equal to their starting number of Wounds. Ridden Monsters add the number of riders to their Unit Strength.

Line of Sight

Monsters have a Line of Sight value of 5.

Base Size

Monsters have an approved base size of 50x50mm, 50x75mm, 50x100mm, 100x150mm.

Chariots(Main Rulebook, p. 89)

A chariot is a wheeled war vehicle drawn into battle by beasts of some kind and crewed by warriors that are armed to the teeth.

Split Profile

In a similar manner to Cavalry, a chariot has more than one set of characteristics, one for the beasts, one for the crew and one for the chariot itself, and is treated as a single model. When moving, the chariot model always uses its own Movement characteristic. However, it may not pivot on the spot like other lone models without Reforming.

The crew and the beasts use their own Weapon Skill, Strength, Initiative and Attacks characteristics when they attack. Each can attack any opponent that the chariot model is in base contact with, although the beasts can only fight enemies to the front.

The Wounds and Toughness of the crew and the beasts are never used – hits are resolved against the chariot's Wounds and Toughness. It is the crew's Weapon Skill that is used for the purposes of the enemy rolling to hit, just as with cavalry. We assume the crew to be in complete control of the beasts that pull the chariot, so the beasts' Leadership is never used.

Any missile weapons use the Ballistic Skill of the crew when making Shooting attacks. The crew can fire in 360 degrees around them, rather than only firing at targets within their front arc. This only applies to any missile weapons carried by the crew themselves; any missile weapons mounted on the chariot itself can only fire in the model's forward arc as normal.

Armour Saves

Many Chariots have an armour save detailed in their army list entry, which is combined with any armour the crew might have.

Supporting Attacks

Chariots cannot make supporting attacks – the rigid body of the chariot prevents other ranks from forcing their way through to attack the foe. However, Chariots in the second rank add +D3 Impact Hits to the chariots in the first rank.

Character Mount

Some characters can ride chariots. If a character has taken a chariot as a mount, the whole model is treated as having the troop type 'chariot' and follows all the rules for both characters and chariot models. A chariot mount otherwise follows all the rules for Cavalry in regard to Split Profile. If the chariot includes any crew in addition to the character, their armour saves are ignored when calculating the overall armour save of the model – only the character's own armour save is used.

Special Rules

Chariots are subject to the following special rules: Impact Hits (D6)Swiftstride.

Some chariots are equipped with massive scythes and instead have Impact Hits (D6+1). This will be specified in their entry.

Just as with cavalry, we assume that special rules that apply to the mounts do not normally also apply to the chariot or its crew, and vice versa. Remember though that there are exceptions, as detailed under the rules for cavalry.

Ranks

A rank of chariots needs only three models to count for rank bonus, steadfast and so on.

Terrain

Chariots are primarily created to operate over firm, even ground. As a result, a chariot that finds itself moving through terrain is likely to have a very bumpy (and possibly fatal) ride. See page Battlefield Terrain for details on chariots and Dangerous Terrain tests.

Unit Strength

Chariots have a Unit Strength equal to their starting number of Wounds and add the number of additional crew and/or mounts purchased to their Unit Strength.

Line of Sight

Chariots have a Line of Sight value of 2.

Base Size

Chariots have an approved base size of 40x40mm, 50x50mm, 50x100mm and 60x100mm.

War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

War machines such as Empire Great Cannons, Orc Rock Lobbers and Dwarf Bolt Throwers are powerful units on the field of battle, able to pulverise whole regiments, breach stone walls or even slay fearsome monsters with a single, well-placed shot.

War Machines form a distinct troop type. However, as their rules are rather unusual, and cover many different weapons that can be found in the Warhammer world, they are dealt with in their own chapter.

Unit Strength

War Machines have a Unit Strength equal to their current number of crew.

Special Rules

Unless specified, any special rules a War Machine might have apply to both the War Machine and the crew.

Line of Sight

War Machines have a Line of Sight value of 1.

Base Size

War Machines often do not have base sizes. In case you wish to mount your war machine on a base, they have an approved base size of 50x50mm to 50x100mm or 50mm to 100mm if you use round bases (scenic bases do not count). War machine crew have an approved base size of 20x20mm and 25x25mm.

Shrines(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

Shrines are usually made up of a platform or cart that is either pulled or carried into battle. Often carrying a magical idol or statue depicting a deity or a similar important figure of note, shrines are meant to either inspire their allies or demoralise their foes, while some can unleash powerful magic to either smite or augment others nearby.

Split Profile

In a similar manner to Chariots, a shrine can often have more than one set of characteristics, one for the creatures pulling or carrying the shrine, one for the crew and one for the shrine itself, and is treated as a single model.

Unlike most other units, a shrine may join other units of Infantry (except Skirmishers) following the rules for Characters and Units in the Characters chapter.

When moving, the shrine model uses its own Movement characteristic. The crew and the creatures pulling the shrine use their own Weapon Skill, Strength, Initiative and Attacks characteristics when they attack. Each can attack any opponent that the shrine model is in base contact with. If the crew models have missile weapons, they use their own Ballistic Skill when making Shooting attacks.

The Wounds and Toughness of the crew and the creatures are never used – hits are resolved against the shrine's Wounds and Toughness. It is the crew's Weapon Skill that is used for the purposes of the enemy rolling to hit, just as with cavalry.

Armour Saves

Some Shrines have an armour save detailed in their army list entry, which is combined with any armour the crew might have.

Character Mount

Some characters can be mounted upon shrines. If a character has taken a shrine as a mount, the whole model is treated as having the troop type 'shrine' and follows all the rules for both characters and shrine models. A shrine mount otherwise follows all the rules for Cavalry in regard to Split Profile. If the shrine includes any crew in addition to the character, their armour saves are ignored when calculating the overall armour save of the model – only the character's own armour save is used.

Terrain

Shrines are primarily created to operate over firm, even ground. As a result, a shrine that finds itself moving through terrain is likely to have a very bumpy (and possibly fatal) ride. See page Battlefield Terrain for details on chariots and Dangerous Terrain tests.

Unit Strength

Shrines have a Unit Strength equal to their starting number of Wounds.

Line of Sight

Shrines have a Line of Sight value of 2.

Base Size

Shrines have an approved base size of a minimum of 40x40mm to a maximum of 60x100mm.

Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

In the grim and dangerous world of Warhammer, warriors employ many different types of weapons against a multitude of foes. From the fine swords of the Elves or the well-wrought axes of the Dwarfs to less-sophisticated choppas of the Orcs or the huge spiked clubs used by Ogres, every race has weaponry fitted to its preferred style of fighting.

All models in a unit should as much as possible be armed with the same weapon and armour type for ease of distinguishing their armament. Some variation is acceptable, but it should be clear to the opponent what sort of equipment a unit has. In case it might not be apparent at first glance, this should be clearly declared upon deploying the unit.

If a model has more than one weapon, they must choose which weapon they want to use at the start of the shooting phase or close combat. A model cannot choose to use two different weapons in the same shooting phase or close combat unless clearly specified. However, if the model has multiple crew or riders (like chariots or ridden monsters), each crew or rider may use one weapon each as normal. Whichever weapon they select must then be used for the entire close combat, unless the weapon they are using is somehow destroyed – it's no easy thing to change to a different weapon partway through a fight.

Weapon Profiles(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Each weapon confers a number of abilities onto the warrior wielding it. This will sometimes be a bonus to their characteristic profile or perhaps grant the wielder one or more special rules, as detailed in the weapon's rules.

Each weapon has its own characteristic profile. There are three sections to a weapon's profile: Range, Strength and Special Rules.

Range

The range tells you at what distance the weapon can be used. If a weapon's range is 'combat' then it can only be used in close combat. If the range is a number of some kind, it is a missile weapon and the number is its maximum range.

Strength

A weapon's Strength can take three forms. If the Strength is shown as a modifier, for example +1, then this is the modifier the weapon applies to the wielding model's strength. If a weapon's Strength is shown as 'as user' then attacks made with the weapon use the wielder's own Strength. Alternatively, if a weapon has a fixed Strength, then all attacks made with that weapon use the Strength value shown – the wielder's Strength is ignored.

Special Rules

Many weapons confer special abilities on the attacks made by the wielder. Sometimes the special rule will be explained immediately after the weapon profile. Otherwise, details on these special rules can be found in the chapter of the same name. Any bonuses applied from a model’s equipment only has an effect in the phases they are actually used. Note that any characteristics bonuses from weapons normally apply when the model actually attacks – they cannot be used for characteristics tests or spell effects etc. When a weapon does not say when the characteristic bonus applies, then it only applies when striking, or being struck, in close combat.

Close Combat Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Melee weapons serve as the core armament for most people in the Old World. From the trusty woodsman’s axe to the knight’s broadsword, they are preferred over unreliable gunpowder weapons, and while missile weapons like crossbows and bows are useful, they often lack the stopping power of a well-placed sword stroke.

Hand Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Hand weapons are a catch-all term for basic weapons without any special rules, and typically includes anything that cuts, stabs, or bludgeons and is held in one hand. It also includes natural weapons, such as claws, teeth and horns. Whenever a unit’s equipment contains an item that is not clearly specified, treat this as a hand weapon. If a model is armed with another close combat weapon besides their hand weapon, they must use this at all times (unless specified).

Polearm(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

The polearm is a heavy bladed weapon mounted on a sturdy shaft. The steel blade often has a point like a spear as well as a heavy cutting edge like an axe. It is held in both hands and used to chop as well as thrust. There are many different kinds of polearms, from halberds and bills, to glaives and pole axes.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
Combat+1-

Note: in some army books polearms go under the name of "halberd" instead.

Great Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Great weapons are especially large and heavy weapons wielded with both hands. This includes great hammers, great axes, two-handed swords and suchlike. A blow from a great weapon can cut a foe in half and break apart the thickest armour. It takes a long time to learn how to use these weapons and even then only extremely strong men are able to wield them effectively.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
Combat+1-

Note: Great weapons give +2 Strength in the first round of close combat, and +1 Strength in following rounds.

Flail(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

A flail is a cumbersome, heavy weapon used with both hands. It consists of heavy weights, often spiked, attached to a pole or handle by heavy chains. A flail drains the user's stamina quickly, but is incredibly destructive on the charge, its impact smashing shields and splintering bones.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
CombatAs User-

Spears(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Spears are long shafts of wood with a sharp metal tip. Because braced spearmen can fight in an additional rank and allow the wielder to keep their opponents at a distance, spears are ideal defensive weapons for infantry.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
CombatAs User-

*Only applies in turns the model is charged to its front. Strength Bonus only applies against WB, Ca, MI, MB, MC, Ch and Mo.

Pikes(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Twice as long as a normal spear and longer than a cavalryman’s lance, the front of a unit of pikes is an impenetrable wall of steel.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
CombatAs User-

*Only applies in turns the model is charged to its front. Strength Bonus only applies against WB, Ca, MI, MB, MC, Ch and Mo.

Spears(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Riders armed with spears ride down footmen, spitting them as they gallop into their ranks.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
CombatAs User-

*Only applies in turns that the model charges, and only against the unit they charged.

Lance(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Lances are long, heavy spears used by mounted shock troops to rip through armour and fling their foes to the ground. They are the chosen weapons of Knights and other wealthy warriors. To use a lance requires great skill and strength, and only the richest warriors ride the heavy warhorses needed to wield these mighty weapons effectively.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
CombatAs User-

*Only applies in turns that the model charges, and only against the unit they charged.

Two/Additional Hand Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Some warriors carry two hand weapons, one in each hand, and can rain down even more blows on their enemy while parrying their strikes.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
CombatAs User-

Missile Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

Missile weapons are an important part of any warrior’s arsenal. They allow combatants to attack from a distance, possibly allowing a few hits before opponents close for melee. Missile weapons include any weapon that is thrown like throwing knives, bottles, or spears; or fired, like bows, crossbows and handguns.

Shortbow(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

Shortbows are small, short-ranged bows that are cheap and require little strength to use. Some cavalry carry a shortened bow which is easier to shoot from horseback than a larger bow.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
18"3-

*Only applies in turns the model has not moved. Cannot be used as a charge reaction.

Bow(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

The bow is carried by most races and used extensively in warfare. It is a compact yet powerful weapon, that is cheap to make and easy to maintain.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
24"3-

*Only applies in turns the model has not moved. Cannot be used as a charge reaction.

Longbow(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

A longbow is made of alternating layers of either yew or elm. A skilled archer can hit a chosen leaf on a tree from three hundred paces with this weapon. The long bow is favoured by experienced archers due to its great reach and accuracy.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
30"3-

*Only applies in turns the model has not moved. Cannot be used as a charge reaction.

Crossbow(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

A crossbow consists of a short, strong bow stave mounted on a wooden or metal stock. It takes a long time to load and wind a crossbow, but each shot has tremendous range and power.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
30"4-

Blowpipe(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

The blowpipe is a short hollow tube which can be used to shoot poisoned darts. While the darts by themselves are too small to cause significant damage, the poison used can cause searing agony and eventual death.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12"1-

Handgun(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

A handgun is a simple firearm consisting of a metal barrel mounted on a wooden stock. Some of the more advanced versions have levers and springs that hold the burning match or flint and release the firing mechanism to trigger the gun. Handguns have a long range and hit very hard, making them valued weapons indeed.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
24"4-

Pistol(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

Pistols are small weapons that employ a noxious and unreliable form of gunpowder to propel a small lead or stone ball. They can also be used as a weapon in close combat in combination with a hand weapon.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12"4-

*If combined with a hand weapon.

Brace of Pistols(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

If a models carries two or more pistols (a 'brace'), it uses them simultaneously, both in combat and when shooting.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12"4-

Javelins(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

Javelins are short throwing spears specially weighted to travel quite a distance. Although they have a much reduced range when compared to an arrow they can cause quite considerable damage when thrown by a person of great strength.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12"As user-

Throwing Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

Throwing weapons, such as stars and knives, are small, easily concealed weapons and, consequently, they are favoured by assassins and lightly armed infiltrators.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
8"As user-

Throwing Axes(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

These weapons are keenly balanced so they can be thrown accurately despite their weight. Even so, the strongest warrior cannot throw such a weapon very far, but if a throwing axe hits its target, the effect is devastating.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
6"As user +1-

Sling(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

A sling is little more than a looped strip of cloth or leather into which a stone is placed. The sling is whirled about the slinger’s head and the sling stone is then released towards the target with surprising strength and accuracy, crushing bones beneath armour.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
18"3-

*Only applies in turns the model has not moved. Cannot be used to Stand and Shoot.

Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Few warriors venture onto the battlefield without some measure of protection, be it only a padded leather jerkin or battered shield. Of course, the more elite or better funded a warrior is, the quality of their armour is likely to be better, so some troops wear chain-, scale- or plate mail, dramatically increasing their chances of survival.

You will notice that there are two values in the profiles. "Combat" indicates the armour save the model will receive against close combat attacks, templates and direct damage spells, and "missile" indicates the armour save the model will receive against normal shooting attacks and magic missiles. The first value indicates the armour save modifier each piece of armour gives to the model’s total armour save, whereas the second value is the basic armour save given to the model by that particular piece of equipment.

Light Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Light armour usually consists of leather armour, a breastplate or a mail shirt covering the torso. Light armour grants some level of protection, and is mostly worn by lower ranking troops who cannot afford better protection.

CombatMissileSpecial Rules
+1/6++1/6+-

Medium Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Professional warriors in the Warhammer World wear mail or scale armour that cover most of their bodies. While more expensive, most fighters consider the cost a worthy expense.

CombatMissileSpecial Rules
+2/5++2/5+-

Heavy Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Heavy armour usually consists of partial plate, as well as mail or scale armour that covers nearly the entire wearer. Usually reserved for elite infantry and cavalry, heavy armour offers quite substantial protection against harm.

CombatMissileSpecial Rules
+3/4++3/4+-

Shields(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Shield come in a variety of shapes and sizes, such as round, square, flat, and convex. Some are even notched for fighting with spears. So common is their use, even the lowliest conscripts carry shields when not called to heft pikes and spears.

CombatMissileSpecial Rules
+1/6++1/6+**-

*Only applies if used with a hand weapon.
**Infantry armed with shields get an additional +1 to their armour save against missile attacks to their front. However, no Troop Type gains any armour saves from shields against missile attacks to their rear.

Bucklers(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

A buckler is a small shield used for catching and repelling attacks. It is too small to make for effective cover against missiles however.

CombatMissileSpecial Rules
+1/6+--

*Only applies if used with a hand weapon.

Barding(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Barding is armour for a horse in the same way that light and heavy armour is for a human. It covers the mount’s hide and in some cases the head. Barding provides knights and other warriors the means to protect their mounts while fighting.

CombatMissileSpecial Rules
+1/6++1/6+-

*Applies to mount's Movement characteristics.

Command Groups(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

So far, we've assumed that all models in a unit are equal - that they are all rank-and-file troops with identical influence on the fray. However, it is commonplace for warriors to march into battle under the leadership of a sergeant or other champion with banners flying proud in the mist-strewn air and the rattle and pounding of drums driving the warriors onward. A unit's champion, standard bearer and musician are collectively referred to as the unit's command group, and that's what we're going to discuss in this section. Before we delve into the nitty gritty of individual rules for command group models, let's cover off the basics.

Fielding Command Groups(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

Many units can include a command group of some kind, dictated on the whole by the miniatures that are available, and detailed in the relevant Warhammer Armies book. Most units can take what we refer to as 'full command' – a champion, standard bearer and musician – whilst others will only be able to take perhaps one or two of these options. Light troops, for example, often do not have an option for a standard bearer, preferring not to draw the enemy's attention by waving a big gaudy flag. Command group models are always chosen as upgrades to normal rank-and-file models.

What's in a Name?(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

In most army books, the term standard bearer is used throughout, though the model in question might actually be carrying an icon, pennant or other such token. Similarly, a musician might be carrying a drum, horn, zither, hurdy-gurdy or some other weird and wonderful instrument – they will still be described as a musician.

Champions, however, are different. You'll rarely find a champion option referred to as simply a champion – he'll be listed under the rank or name given to the champion of that particular unit. There is a little potential for confusion here, as a champion is not so clearly identified as a standard bearer or a musician. Fortunately, this distinction makes the champion easy to identify – if a unit has a champion option, it'll be the one that isn't clearly labelled musician or standard bearer. Furthermore, a champion always has a slightly different characteristic profile to the other troops in a unit, so if in doubt you can always identify them that way!

Position Within a Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

Command groups must be placed in the unit's front rank and move automatically if the unit reforms.

Champions, standard bearers and musicians can always be found in the forefront of the fighting, as is entirely fitting as they lead their comrades through personal example.

Any models that make up a unit's command group must be placed in the front rank of the unit, unless there is not enough room for them to fit. Where this happens, as many command group models as possible must be placed in the front rank and any remaining models are placed in the rank behind.

If the unit changes formation then the command group automatically pushes its way back to the front. Accordingly, when a unit reforms, the models of the unit's command group must be repositioned into the unit's new front rank as described above (regardless of the distance).

Now we've got all that out of the way, let's take a look at the command group's members.

Command Groups and Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

Command group models cannot normally be removed as casualties unless there are no other rank-and-file members of their unit left. This applies even if the model is the target of an effect that affects only a single model, such as a dangerous terrain test, or an attack made with the Sniper special rule. Instead, normal rank and file models are removed first. They will either push the champion out of harm's way, step forward to raise the fallen standard aloft or will retrieve the instrument from the musician's corpse and continue to play.

When no rank-and-file models remain, the controlling player chooses the order in which the command group models are removed.

Champions(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

Champion Profile(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

A champion always has a slightly better profile than their fellows, having improved their skills over the course of several battles. Normally, this increase will take the form of an extra Attack (in the case of a champion whose unit specialises in close combat) or an extra point of Ballistic Skill (if the champion's unit employs chiefly ranged weapons). In some more unusual cases, a champion will have other characteristics bonuses, in which case these will also be shown in their characteristic profile.

Arms and Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

A champion model will normally have different wargear to their fellows, in order that they should stand out from the crowd! However, they counts as having exactly the same weapons and armour as the other members of their unit.

That said, some champions do have the option to take equipment that is not available to other members of their unit – where this is the case it will be clearly stated in the appropriate Warhammer Armies book.

Champions and Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

As you might expect, a champion uses their own characteristics when they shoot. If making a shooting attack, the champion must shoot at the same target as the rest of their unit – you'll normally want to roll different coloured dice for the champion's shots if they have a different Ballistic Skill.

"Follow Me!"(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

Champions lead their assigned regiments, urging them on and giving them marching orders, keeping the men in check. A unit that is accompanied by a champion may re-roll failed Leadership tests in the following scenarios:

  • Attempting to March when within 8" of enemy units.

  • Attempting to Redirect a Charge.

  • Reforming from Defeat after losing a round of close combat.

  • Restraining from Pursuit

Standard Bearers(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

A unit of troops often fights below a standard or banner of some kind, a glorious token of their allegiance, history and pride. Such a standard is much treasured by the soldiers that fight and die beneath it, and they will battle on all the harder whilst it still flies.

Profile and Wargear(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

A standard bearer always has the same profile as the other rank and file models in their unit. Similarly, we also treat them as being equipped with the same weapons and armour as other models, although the model itself might not be armed the same way.

In reality, the standard bearer model will probably lack a shield, or will have exchanged a weighty lance for a sword. Such is to be expected - a standard is a terribly weighty thing, and standard bearers often shed other burdens in order to keep the flag flying. The standard's the important thing after all - we can well imagine the bearer setting aside other trivial burdens to allow the mighty flag to be held aloft.

We furthermore take this deficiency in wargear to be compensated for by the sheer fighting skills and tenacity of the warrior in question. Only the toughest soldier in a unit will be given the honour of carrying the standard, and therefore we assume the standard bearer fights as if they have the same equipment as their fellows (which makes things far easier to keep track of).

Combat Resolution Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

As we already discussed in the Close Combat chapter, a standard bearer is almost invaluable in a fight. If a unit includes a standard bearer, it will be more determined than ever to beat its foe, and so adds +1 to its combat result.

Musicians(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

When an army marches, it does so to the beat of drums and the call of blaring horns. These instruments are used to announce a unit's presence on the battlefield, bringing fresh hope to friends and worry to enemies. More than this, a unit's musician is crucial to keeping order when the unit attempts to change formation or should it need to rally. For trained troops, a prearranged sequence of notes can carry as much information as a bellowed order, and can do so more clearly and with greater speed.

Profile and Wargear(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

As with a standard bearer, we assume a unit's musician to have the same characteristic profile and wargear as other models in the unit, with the warrior's skill and determination compensating for any lack of equipment. An enemy can suffer quite a nasty wallop from a drumstick, after all!

"Stand Fast!"(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

If a combat goes poorly, a unit's musician plays ever louder, to rouse the spirits of their fellows and drive them forward into the fray with greater vigour. As a result, the side that has a musician in its front rank of one or more of its units wins any drawn close combat by 1, unless the opposing side has a musician also, in which case the redoubled efforts (and almighty clamour) cancel each other out.

"Form On Me!"(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

A musician forms a clear and vital rallying point for a fleeing unit and can spell the difference between a brief retreat and a headlong flight. If a fleeing unit has a musician, it may re-roll its Leadership test whenever it attempts to rally. Fast Cavalry and Skirmishers that have fled using Feigned Flight automatically rallies.

Swift Reform(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

A unit that is not fleeing and not engaged in combat can make a swift reform during the Remaining Moves sub-phase if it has a musician. A swift reform is treated exactly like a reform manoeuvre, however such is the speed and efficiency with which the reform was carried out that the following exceptions apply:

  • A unit performing a swift reform may not change their formation by decreasing or increasing their ranks. The unit may only turn on the spot by pivoting like a lone model.

  • A unit that has made a swift reform can immediately make a full normal move, even though a reform would normally prevent it from doing so. Note that a unit that carries out a swift reform cannot march.

  • A unit that has made a swift reform can still shoot, although it will count as moving, whether or not it moves further after the reform has been completed. This means that it will suffer the -1 modifier for moving and firing, and will not be able to shoot Move or Fire weapons.

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

The Warhammer world would not be what it is without the presence of great lords, valiant heroes and mighty wizards. Such powerful individuals add a new dimension to your games of Warhammer, either as inspiring leaders or skilled warriors able to trounce hordes of lesser fighters. Such potent personages are called 'characters'.

Characters are generally known by different names appropriate to their nation or race. The types of character available to an army will vary with the personality of that army. Most races in Warhammer can call upon the services of powerful fighters and puissant wizards in equal measure, some have unique types of specialist character, and a few have jack-of-
all-trades characters that are adept in many different aspects of war.

Character Models(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

Characters are a special type of unit that can either operate on their own, or join another unit from the same side. They often have superior characteristic values compared to ordinary members of their race.

Characters and Units(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

The most useful thing about a character is their ability to join other units. The character receives a greater degree of protection for being in the unit, becoming far harder to assassinate from range. In return, the unit gains the character's formidable fighting and leadership skills – all the better to help them crush the foe.

What Unit Can I Join?(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

Most characters are allowed to join certain types of unit over the course of the battle. A character is normally permitted to join units of made up of infantry, cavalry, monstrous infantry, monstrous beasts or monstrous cavalry. Characters can also join other characters belonging to one the troop types listed above, thus forming an impromptu unit entirely made of characters. However, a character is not allowed to join a unit made up of a Troop Type with a higher Unit Strength than his own Troop Type, unless specified.

Unless otherwise stated, a character cannot join a unit of monsters, a unit of flyers (unless they are also a flyer of the same Troop Type), a unit of chariots (unless they are also mounted on a chariot), a unit of swarms or a war machine. Similarly, a character that is itself a war machine, monster, or riding a monster or a chariot cannot join other units (with the exceptions mentioned above). A character cannot join a unit that is already engaged in close combat or is fleeing.

Joining A Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

To join a unit a character must move into base contact with it during the Movement phase. Once a character has joined a unit in this way, neither character nor unit can move further, so it's a good idea to plan your moves in the correct order.

As a unit can move only before the character joins, it's better to move the unit first and then have the character move to join it. A unit which has been joined by a character in the Movement phase only counts as having moved if it has itself moved, not if a character has moved to join it.

Position in the Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

When characters join a unit, they are placed in the front rank (regardless of distance). Rank-and-file models (including the command group) are moved to the second rank to make room for the characters. If there is no more room in the front rank, the characters may not join the unit until the unit reforms to make it wide enough.

Different Sized Bases(Main Rulebook, p. 100)

Most of the time, a character is mounted on the same size of base as the unit they decides to join. In this case, the character can simply be added to the front rank, displacing another model as described above. Naturally, this gets a little more involved if the character has a different-sized base to the members of the unit. Here we have to use a little common sense to make everything work.

If a character's base is larger than one model, but has exactly the same size area (or 'footprint') as two or more models, simply displace those models to the back rank and position the character in their place.

If your character(s) fit into the unit in this manner, work out the unit's ranks (and therefore its rank bonus) as if the space was filled with rank and file troops.

If a character's footprint does not fit neatly into a unit, place them on the edge of the unit, beside the front rank, facing the same direction as the rest of the unit. In this case we do not assume the character's footprint to be filled by rank-and-file troops.

This model is riding on a mount and has a 25mm x 50mm footprint. He can still join the infantry unit, but will displace two models as the infantry models have a 25mm x 25mm footprint. The two infantry models that are displaced are moved to the rear rank.
All the units shown below have three complete ranks, and therefore a rank bonus of +2.
This character's base footprint does not fit neatly into the unit, so it is placed at the side instead. The character is ignored for the purpose of calculating rank bonus.

Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

When a character joins a unit that is under the effect of a spell that affects the entire unit, the character only benefits or suffers from the effects of the spell whilst they remain in the unit. Similarly, if a character is the subject of a spell that is capable of affecting a unit, the effect will also apply to any unit they join, for as long as they remain part of it, and the spell lasts.

Characters in Fleeing Units(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

If the character has joined a unit and this later flees, they will count towards working out if the unit is still at or above 25% of its initial numbers for the purposes of Rally tests.

Combined Units(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

Whilst a character is part of a unit, both they and the unit (including any other characters that have joined that unit) are treated as a single combined unit for all rules purposes, save for the exceptions listed here.

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

A unit always moves at the same rate as the slowest model, so when the unit moves, charges, flees or pursues, always use the lowest Movement characteristic and rules of the slowest troop type. Similarly, if the character is subject to any movement restrictions, then those restrictions apply to whole combined unit whilst the character remains part of it, and vice versa.

Characters can change position inside a unit as part of a normal move, as long as they end up in the front rank of the unit. It is also worth remembering that even if only the character moves the whole unit will count as moving that turn. Having a belligerent officer barge their way through the unit is not conducive to a good round of shooting!

If a unit containing one or more characters has had its Movement Allowance altered, this will affect a character leaving the unit, including if they try to charge out of it, but for that move only.

Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

Missile attacks (except templates) cannot hit a character in a combined unit if there are five or more rank and file models from the same troop type (excluding other characters) left in the unit. We assume that the enemy cannot pick the character out. All hits are allocated onto the unit's rank and file models.

However, if the character has a different troop type with a higher Unit Strength than the rest of the unit, it possible to target that model separately from the rest of the unit. If so, roll a D6 for each successful Hit on the character; on a 4+, that Hit is allocated to the unit it is with instead. This applies even if the unit can only draw Line of Sight to the character, but not the unit they are with.

If there are fewer than five rank-and-file models left in the unit before resolving the hits, there is a chance that any characters in the unit could be hit – the controlling player decides who is hit, but must allocate one hit on each model before they can add a second hit on a model; they must allocate two hits on each model before they can allocate a third, and so on.

"Look Out, Sir!"(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

If a character is hit by a template weapon or spell that uses a template, a comrade will shout a warning or physically push them clear of incoming harm and suffer the hit themself instead. This happens automatically, and no roll is required, nor is this considered as a "save" for rules purposes.

"Look Out, Sir!" cannot be used if there are less than five rank-and-file models (including command group) left in the unit. This only applies to Characters with the same troop type as the unit.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

In the Close Combat phase, enemy models in base contact with both the character and one or more models from the character's unit can choose to attack the character or the unit, or split their attacks between them. You need to declare where attacks are being allocated before they are rolled. If the character is slain, any excess wounds do not carry over onto the rest of the unit but are simply lost.

Make Way!(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

Should a combined unit be fighting in close combat, it is only right and proper that a mighty hero will push his way through to the fighting. At the start of the combat (before Impact Hits are resolved), if a character's unit is in combat, but the character is not in base contact with the enemy, the controlling player can swap his position with another model that is in base contact. You can exchange him with rank-and-file model(s), including the command group, that are in base contact with the enemy. If there are one or more stranded characters on both sides, the players roll off and the winner decides which character makes his Make Way! first. Players then alternate choosing characters to do their Make Way! moves. Only characters whose footprint is compatible with the unit's rank and file can do this.

Note that Make Way can only be used to move the character to another position in the front rank; it cannot be used to move the character to a rank in the flank or rear.

The character is not in base contact with the enemy at the start of the combat, and so is allowed to perform a Make Way move to get into contact.

Leadership Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

As already mentioned, Leadership tests are always taken using the highest value present in the unit. In the case of a combined unit, this will normally be the character, but might occasionally prove to be the rank and file of the unit themselves, particularly in the case of elite warriors.

Special Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

Unless otherwise noted in the text of the rule itself, a special rule applying only to a character does not apply to the unit, and vice versa. Most special rules are there to represent specific skills or powers – you couldn't learn to shoot a longbow by standing next to someone who could, so why would you become able to perform a Killing Blow, deploy as a Scout, and so on?

On the other hand, many spells and magic items bestow special rules and other effects on units. In this case, everyone (including the character) in the combined unit will be affected.

Leaving a Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

Whilst a character might well stay with a unit for the entire course of a battle, there often comes a time when they depart for pastures new. This might be because you need your character to take charge of another section of the battlefront, or because the character's current unit has been so mercilessly butchered by the enemy that they are no longer safe within it. Whatever the reason, we're going to need rules to allow a character to leave a unit.

A character can charge out of a unit, by declaring a charge in the relevant phase – in which case, they will move and their unit will stay still – it is not permitted to declare a charge of its own, though it can move during the Remaining Moves phase. If a unit contains multiple characters, only one of them may charge out of the unit per turn.

If a Stand and Shoot reaction is declared against a character charging out of a unit, the shots are fired at the character as if they were a separate target – they do not gain the same protection as being inside a unit, but they does get a 4+ "Look Out, Sir!" if the unit they are leaving is the same troop type as they are.

Alternatively, any character can leave their unit during the Remaining Moves sub-phase by moving away from the unit before that unit makes its own move. If the unit cannot move in this phase for any reason, the character may not leave the unit. A character may not leave a unit on the same turn that they join it.

For example, a character cannot leave if:

  • Their unit is fleeing.

  • The character themself or their unit is not permitted to move by a spell or other effect.

  • If the unit is in combat.

  • If the unit has made a failed charge.

  • And so on...

When leaving a unit, the character reverts to their normal rules for movement. The distance of their move is worked out from their actual position in the unit before the unit moves. they can even join another unit as part of the same move if their controlling player wishes, and the character has enough movement, although the unit they join cannot move if it hasn't done so already.

1. The character charges out of the unit in the Charge sub-phase, or moves out of the unit in the Remaining Moves sub-phase.
2. The unit then moves off in the Remaining Moves sub-phase.

Unit Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

As soon as the last model from the unit has been removed, any remaining characters will count as a new unit. Note that this will cause Panic tests to all friendly units within 6" (including the newly formed unit of character(s)) as the unit has been destroyed.

Lone Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 104)

Being dangerous and canny fellows, characters are permitted to move around the battlefield as individuals, fighting a solitary battle against the foe. Indeed, many characters excel at this role, having the raw power to take on entire enemy units and still prove victorious.

Characters that have not joined another unit are treated as a separate unit of the appropriate type for all rules purposes. They move, shoot and fight as described in the relevant section of the rules. For ease of reference, we will call such models 'lone characters'.

Characters that are Infantry follow the rules for Skirmishers. Characters that are Cavalry follow the rules for Fast Cavalry.

Shooting at Lone Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 104)

Characters are tempting targets for the marksmen in the enemy army – one well-placed volley and a powerful foe can perhaps be brought down before they have the chance to wreak ruin. However, picking out a lone character in the midst of a clamorous battle is harder than you might think. At a distance it can be hard to tell officers and common soldiers apart, particularly when units are advancing, marching and charging all around you, so we give lone characters a little protection to represent this.

If a lone character is hit by a missile attack (remember the modifier for shooting at Lone Models) a "Look Out, Sir!" roll can be attempted, provided there is a friendly unit consisting of five or more rank and file models of the character's troop type within 3". Roll a D6. On a roll of 4+, the character has been successfully forewarned or otherwise preserved from harm by their nearby allies the hit is transferred to a model in the friendly unit (if there is more than one eligible unit within 3", the controlling player can decide which made the honourable sacrifice). Otherwise, the hit is resolved against the character as normal.

You'll notice that the there is a chance of this "Look Out, Sir!" and it does not work automatically like the one discussed previously. This is only fitting as it's far harder to warn a friend from a distance than if they stood a few paces away.

1. This model has a different Troop Type than the unit, and therefore receives no protection from the unit. 2. This model is too far away to gain any benefit from near the unit. 3. This model has the same Troop Type as the unit and is close enough to receive a 4+ "Look Out, Sir!" against missile attacks.

Challenges(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

No matter their race or allegiance, the quickest and easiest route for a warrior to earn glory and a dread reputation is by killing enemy heroes in close combat. I don't mean through a chance blow in the brutal crush of melee – after all, even the most cowardly peasant can poke a spear through an enemy warlord's back, should they get the opportunity. No, what I'm referring to is a duel between mighty warriors, the clash of sword upon and sword and axe upon shield as two doughty fighters strive against one another in a contest of battle-skill. In Warhammer, we refer to such battles as challenges. Challenges are one of the most dramatic parts of Warhammer, representing as they do the final showdown between opposing warlords or hated rivals. It's not unusual for the result of a battle to hinge on who wins a challenge!

Issuing a Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

Challenges are issued at the start of the combat round, before any blows are struck (but after Impact Hits). Only one challenge can be issued per close combat - the side whose turn it is has the opportunity to issue a challenge first. If that side chooses not to, then the other side can issue a challenge.

The player issuing the challenge nominates one of their character models to issue the challenge. If they do not have a suitable model in the fight, a challenge cannot be issued. Similarly, if there are no characters in the enemy units, a challenge cannot be issued – there's no one to fight!

Quite how individual warriors issue their challenges varies from race to race. An Elf or Man might salute their opponent, whilst an Orc bellows insults at their foe. To issue a challenge, choose one of your characters in one of your units in the combat – this is the model that issues the challenge. Once one challenge has been made, further challenges cannot be issued in that combat.

Accepting a Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

If your opponent has issued a challenge, you can now accept it with one of your characters whose unit is in base contact with the unit containing the issuer of the challenge. Note that a character does not have to be in base contact with an enemy to accept or issue a challenge, just part of a unit that is. The two models will now fight, as described in Fighting a Challenge, below.

Refusing a Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

If no enemy character steps forward to meet the challenge, one of them must retire in ignominy. This character is nominated by the challenger (though they may not nominate a character that could not have accepted the challenge). The retiring character slinks off to the back ranks and is not allowed to attack that round – move the model into a rank where they are not in base contact with the enemy. Another model will step up and fight in their place, just as if they had been slain. Furthermore, the model's Leadership cannot be used for any Leadership tests that take place that turn. The character may return to the front rank in the next round of combat if you wish, or stay in the rear rank until the unit reforms.

Once a challenge has been refused, the issuer can fight normally in that round of combat.

Nowhere to Run, Nowhere to Hide (Main Rulebook, p. 105)

A character cannot refuse a challenge if his model cannot be placed so that he is not in base contact with an enemy model – he can't evade his opponent and so must fight for his life. This most commonly happens if a lone character is the subject of a challenge, if his unit is small and engaged on all fronts, so that every model in the unit is in base contact with an enemy, or if he is fighting from a Shrine which must remain in the front rank of the unit.

Fighting A Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

If a character accepts the challenge, move them into base contact with the challenger – after all, what good is the narrative of a challenge without the visual reality? If, for whatever reason, this is not possible, assume that the two models are in base contact (this might require a little gumption to work out, so it's best to move the model if you can). These two characters must direct all of their attacks (except Breath Weapons, Impact Hits and Stomps – these are directed at the unit as normal) against each other – they cannot be attacked by any other model for that round of close combat. However, note that they may still be affected various special rules and abilities that normally affect models in base contact.

Overkill(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

If one model slays the other, then any excess wounds they inflicted above and beyond those needed to slay the opponent, up to a maximum of +3, are counted towards their side's total number of wounds for close combat resolution.

Note that this is an exception to the rule stating that a model can only suffer as many wounds as it has on its profile. This time you need to add up all of the wounds inflicted on the victim, even those from a weapon causing multiple wounds, or by repeated Killing Blows (each successful Killing Blow scores the same amount of wounds the slain character has on its profile), etc. This is great fun, albeit a little one-sided.

Further Rounds(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

If both competitors survive a challenge, and the combat continues, then they will continue to fight in the next round of close combat. Further challenges cannot be issued in that combat until the existing challenge has been resolved.

The General(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Every army is led by a General, a heroic character to whom command of the various warriors, war machines and wizards has been entrusted (or who has seized control over the army by brute force or nefarious means). The General model is a miniature representation of you as the controlling player – they are your physical avatar upon the battlefield and the heart of your army.

Inspiring Presence(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Warriors fight all the better under the stern gaze of their General, taking heart from their noble presence (or perhaps fearing their anger more than the blades of the enemy). Providing that the General is not fleeing, all friendly units within 12" may use their Leadership instead of their own (so rally your General first), unless specified (such as having to use their unmodified Leadership).

If your General has a Line of Sight value of 5 or more, then the range of their Inspiring Presence ability is increased by 6".

If a unit taking a Leadership test has a modifier to its Leadership, this modifier still applies if the unit uses the General’s Leadership.

If a unit is Steadfast, it may use the Leadership of the General for Break tests if it is higher than their own Leadership after applying all negative modifiers from combat resolution. Otherwise, they will use their own Leadership.

For example, a Steadfast unit with Leadership 7 has lost the combat by 1 but is within the Inspiring Presence range of the General who has Leadership 9. In this case, the unit can use the Generals Leadership value and will test on Leadership 8. However, if they instead had lost the combat by 3, the unit will test on their own Leadership of 7, as this would be higher than using the General's Leadership value of 6 after combat resolution modifiers.

The Battle Standard Bearer(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Armies often include a Battle Standard Bearer – a trusted warrior who holds aloft the General's personal heraldry. A Battle Standard Bearer is a rallying point for the army, from which friendly soldiers can take heart and draw strength.

A Battle Standard Bearer is a heroic model carrying a particularly impressive banner, and it will be presented as an option in your Warhammer Armies book. The battle standard is carried by a character model and, unless specified otherwise, the model that carries the battle standard cannot be the General.

Unlike normal standards, the battle standard is lost if the bearer is slain – other models cannot pick it up, even if they are in the same unit.

If a Battle Standard Bearer is in a unit and Refuses a Challenge it is subsequently moved to the rear of its unit and loses the Hold Your Ground rule until the end of the turn. Note, however, that if the Battle Standard Bearer has a magic standard its effects continue to apply as normal (it cannot be ‘switched on or off’).

Combat Result Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Like a normal standard, a battle standard adds +1 combat resolution in a close combat if it is in a friendly unit.

Hold Your Ground!(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

To represent the battle standard's steadying presence, friendly models within 12" of the Battle Standard Bearer re-roll failed Panic and Break tests. This ability cannot be used if the Battle Standard Bearer is also fleeing – no one takes heart from the sight of a coward.

If your Battle Standard Bearer has a Line of Sight value of 5 or more, then the range of their Hold Your Ground ability is increased by 6".

War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 107)

War machines are mechanical constructions that hurl massive projectiles at the foe. Bolt throwers, cannons and stone throwers are all war machines, and there are many other bizarre contraptions to be found in the Warhammer world.

War machines are very powerful and can vary greatly in form and function. For simplicity and sanity, we therefore divide a war machine's rules into two parts. The first part of rules pertains to the rules for the war machine troop type – essentially its chassis and crew – which apply to all war machines. The second part consists of the rules for how each specific type war machine fires.

As with all units, it's worth checking the Bestiary (in the Reference section) so you can be sure which troops are classed as war machines.

Split Profile(Main Rulebook, p. 107)

War machines have two profiles, one for the war machine itself, and one for the crew.

You always use the Movement, Weapon Skill, Ballistic Skill, Strength, Wounds, Initiative, Attacks and Leadership of the crew. The Toughness of the war machine is used against ranged attacks and the majority Toughness of the crew is used against close combat attacks. The crew's armour save (if any) is used against both ranged and close combat attacks. Once all the crew are slain, the war machine is removed as a casualty.

Characteristics Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 107)

Any characteristics tests are resolved against the characteristics value of the crew.

The Crew(Main Rulebook, p. 107)

A war machine unit comprises the machine itself, plus its crew. As the crew aren't really a combat unit, per se, we ignore them for most gaming purposes, treating the war machine itself as the extent of the unit. When the war machine suffers a wound, remove a crew model. Once all the crew have been removed, the war machine itself is removed from play. Similarly, if the war machine is removed as a casualty, all remaining crew are also removed. The crew are used only to indicate the remaining number of Wounds and the number of attacks the war machine can make in close combat, so players should simply arrange their crew in a pleasingly aesthetic fashion within 1" of the war machine.

The crew cannot be charged, attacked or otherwise affected separately from their war machine – if they are found to be blocking movement or line of sight, the controlling player simply alters their position, just as you would for any other battlefield marker or counter.

The War Machine(Main Rulebook, p. 107)

War machine models that do not have bases do not use the usual convention of measuring to the model's base. When measuring to and from the war machine, measure to or from the body of the machine, by which we mean the central part of the chassis or the weapon itself (ignore any spikes, piles of cannonballs, sprockets, banners and so on).

When firing a war machine's weapon, ranges are measured from the muzzle of the gun (in the case of a cannon, volley gun or similar) or the crossbar (in the case of a stone thrower or similar catapult). If your war machine is particularly unusual and does not have any of these features, you should choose a suitable point from which you will measure all your shooting attacks, so long as you are consistent.

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 107)

We assume that a war machine's crew are able to wheel or drag it short distances at a time. The war machine can move using the rules for lone models. Use the crew's Movement characteristic to determine how far the war machine can move. Remember that all distances are measured from the war machine model itself – move the war machine and then place the crew within 1" of it.

War machines can never charge or march. If charged, a war machine can only choose to hold – even in mortal danger the crew are loathe to abandon their pride and joy. If forced to flee (because of a failed Break test for example) the war machine is destroyed. In such cases we assume that the crew sabotage their war machine to prevent the enemy making use of it, before fleeing the battle with no intention of returning.

War machines treat all terrain other than open ground and hills as impassable. That said, a war machine is permitted to deploy in a building or terrain, but if it does, it cannot move during the game except to pivot on the spot.

Charging a War Machine(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

Even though most war machines do not have bases, units charging a war machine must still attempt to 'close the door' to align to the centre of the war machine's body (as defined in 'The War Machine' above).

The red unit has charged so they are touching the war machine and so can fight it in the ensuing combat.

Shooting at War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

When shooting at a war machine (including spells and template attacks), resolve the attack as normal, using the Toughness value of the war machine – the crew are doubtless cowering behind their war machine, using its iron and timber hide to preserve their altogether more fragile ones. The crew's armour save is still used to attempt to prevent any wounds inflicted, as it is they that the attack is attempting to slay.

In case the crew of the war machine is made up of models with different profiles, such as a character or other unique crew model; allocate the hits between the crew as you would for shooting at characters in a unit (see the Characters chapter).

Shooting with War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

Unless specified otherwise, all weapons in this section (and all other weapons mounted on war machines) have the Move or Fire and Slow to Fire special rules. Each type of war machine weapon is fired differently, as described in its own set of rules. Line of sight is always taken from the chosen firing point (i.e. its muzzle or crossbar, in the same way as for its range). Unlike other lone models, pivoting the war machine during the Movement phase counts as moving for war machines, and thus they cannot fire in turns they do so. Before you fire the war machine, pivot it to face your chosen target in the Shooting phase so the war machine faces it directly in a straight line – note that the target must be within the war machine's forward arc as normal.

For war machine weapons that require Ballistic Skill, use the highest Ballistic Skill amongst the crew to resolve the shot. Unless specified, War Machines do not suffer To Hit penalties for Moving and Shooting or firing Multiple Shots.

Unit A is outside of the cannon's line of sight and therefore cannot be targeted unless it moves during the Movement phase, but then cannot fire this turn. Unit B is within line of sight and thus the cannon can pivot on the spot in the shooting phase and still fire on them this turn.

War Machines in Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 109)

War machine crews are not especially known for their valour, and will normally defend their machine from behind, beneath (or within) its frame. This is a valid defensive tactic, as there is a limit as to how many enemy warriors can physically crowd around a war machine. As such, enemies charging a War Machine lose all charge bonuses (including bonus from special rules).

At the start of the Close Combat phase, before any blows are struck, the player whose unit(s) are attacking the war machine must choose models worth up to Unit Strength 6 who will fight in the combat (the assault party, if you will) – the rest cannot get close enough to land blows. This is regardless of the number of units that are fighting the war machine. Note that you may always allocate a minimum of one model to fight, regardless of their actual Unit Size.

All models chosen for the fight are considered to be in base contact with the war machine. Models that are in base contact with other enemies cannot be chosen to be part of a war machine's assault party – they're too busy fighting their more immediate foes.

The combat is otherwise resolved normally. In particular, casualties are taken from the 'back' of the unit as normal – models step up and join the fight in place of fallen comrades, assuming there are enough survivors to do so. All surviving crew model fight as normal using their Weapon Skill, Strength, Initiative and Attacks. Enemy models strike against the crew normally, resolving their attacks against the crew's Weapon Skill and Toughness. The crew can then take any saves to which they are entitled.

A war machine does not have any flanks or a rear for the purposes of combat results. If a war machine manages to win its combat, it is not allowed to pursue and restrains pursuit automatically. The crew always hold their ground and continue the business of operating the machine. If the war machine loses the combat and fails its Break test it is destroyed.

War Machines and Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 109)

If a war machine fails a Panic test (due to friends being destroyed within 6", Terror and so on) it does not flee. The crew dive for cover underneath their machine and cannot shoot in their next Shooting phase – this does not prevent the crew clearing jams or other misfire results.

Bolt Throwers(Main Rulebook, p. 110)

Bolt throwers are huge crossbows that shoot a spear-sized missile. A crew of two or more is required to wind back the powerful torsion arms and position the huge bolt ready for firing.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
48"6-

Firing a Bolt Thrower(Main Rulebook, p. 110)

To fire a bolt thrower, select a target according to the normal rules for shooting. With the target chosen, pivot to face the target like any war machine, and roll to hit using the crew's Ballistic Skill, just as you would for a normal missile weapon. All the normal To Hit penalties (except firing Multiple Shots) apply to a shot from a bolt thrower – it is essentially just a massive crossbow, after all.

If the shot misses, the bolt hits the ground or sails into the air, only to land harmlessly some distance away from the target. If the shot hits, damage can then be resolved using the rules given below.

Resolving Bolt Thrower Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 110)

If the target is a unit of five or more ranked-up models, the bolt will always strike a regular trooper (as opposed to a character in the unit) in the unit's first rank if the bolt thrower is in the unit's front arc, or the last rank if the bolt thrower is in the unit's rear arc. If the bolt thrower is in the target unit's flank, the target's files count as ranks for the purposes of resolving the shot.

The sheer mass of a bolt thrower shot means that it can hurtle through several ranks of troops, piercing each warrior in turn. If the shot hits, resolve damage against the target using the bolt thrower's full Strength of 6. If this model is slain, the bolt then hits one of the warriors in the rank behind, although it will have been robbed of a little force – this next warrior is hit with -1 Strength (normally Strength 5). If the second trooper is slain, a model in the next rank is hit at -2 Strength (normally Strength 4) and so on, until either the unit runs out of ranks or the bolt fails to slay a target (remember that all hits, at any Strength, inflict multiple wounds).

Up to four models can be killed by the shot of this bolt thrower. The Strength that each rank is hit at is shown next to it.
As the bolt thrower is in their flank arc, up to five models can be killed by its shot.
The bolt thrower can see the cavalry unit, and so it can fire against them (with the hard cover modifier). If it hits, it will skewer the flank of the unit, as shown in the diagram, as it is in the knights' flank arc.

Bolt Throwers and Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 110)

If the rank hit by the bolt is made entirely of characters, or if the total number of rank and file models in the unit is less than five, it will be necessary to randomise which model in the rank is hit.

Cannons(Main Rulebook, p. 111)

Cannons are devastating, if sometimes unpredictable, weapons whose manufacture is limited to few races. When they work, cannons can shatter the most determined enemy, slamming roundshot after roundshot into massed formations. However, cannons can go wrong. The black powder charge can fail to ignite, or explode prematurely. Worse, weaknesses in casting methods can leave minute cracks or other deficiencies, which lead to the cannon exploding when fired.

There are two different kinds of cannon profile, representing the differing size and power of various cannons.

Cannon

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12-48"10-

Great Cannon

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12-60"10-

Firing a Cannon(Main Rulebook, p. 111)

Cannons do not use their crew's Ballistic Skill and instead rely on their crew's expertise in judging distance, elevation and the correct amount of black powder to propel the shot the desired distance.

Choose Target(Main Rulebook, p. 111)

To fire a cannon, first pivot to face the target following the normal rules for war machines. Then, nominate a model or building within the cannon's line of sight, outside of its minimum range and within its maximum range.

When you have chosen your target, place a small marker over your target in the correct position as a reminder of where the shot is intended to land. Note that you are not allowed to place the marker over friendly models, or enemy models from a unit that is engaged in combat, as the crew refuse to deliberately target their allies (although the shot might well go wide and hit friends by mistake as we'll discover later).

Fire!(Main Rulebook, p. 111)

Once the marker has been placed, roll for scatter using a scatter dice and an artillery dice. Assuming that you didn't roll a misfire on the artillery dice, it's now time to find out whether or not your shot was on target.

If a hit is rolled on the scatter dice, the shot has landed on target. In this case, we ignore the number shown on the artillery dice – the hit is all we need. If an arrow is rolled, the shot has missed its original target and scatters off elsewhere. Move the marker a distance in inches equal to the result of the artillery dice divided by half, in the direction shown on the scatter dice.

Using your tape measure, extend a 'shot' line from the cannon's barrel all the way to the marker – this is the direction the cannonball travels straight forward. If you roll a misfire, something goes wrong when the cannon fires. You'll now need to roll on the Black Powder War Machine Misfire chart to discover the seriousness of the situation. Regardless of the result rolled, the cannon does not shoot this turn.

(Dot indicates initial position) The cannon targets the model, as marked by the dot. After that, the player rolls the artillery and scatter dice to find out whether or not the shot lands on target.
(Dot indicates position after scatter) The artillery dice did not roll a 'Hit'; and as such the cannonball scatter the distance (divided by half) shown in the artillery dice; in this case, 2" in the direction of the scatter dice.

Bounce(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Assuming that the cannon did not misfire, then hopefully the cannonball will bounce straight forward and crush any targets in its path.

To determine how far the cannonball bounces, roll the artillery dice again. If the result is a misfire then the cannonball does not bounce – it thuds into the ground and comes to rest. Any model under the spot where the cannonball comes to rest is hit, but they are the only victim!

Assuming you don't roll a misfire, then the cannonball bounces the distance rolled – extend your tape measure a distance equal to the roll of the dice. If the cannonball bounces into impassable terrain that would, in reality, stand in the way of the shot, such as a sheer cliff, it stops immediately.

Who's Been Hit?(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

The bounce of the cannonball is treated exactly like a special kind of template, which we assume to be about the width of the cannonball itself.

On most occasions, any model whose base is between the point where the cannonball first strikes the ground and where it eventually comes to land is hit automatically! However:

  • A maximum of one model per rank struck can be hit. If the cannon is in the target's flank, the target's files count as ranks.

  • If the cannonball bounces into a monstrous infantry/beast/cavalry or monster, that model suffers a hit. However, if the monster or monstrous infantry/beast/cavalry model is not slain, the sheer bulk of the creature robs the cannonball of all momentum and the shot travels no further.

Black dot represents the initial position. The cannonball lands right on target. The following bounce goes through all three ranks of the unit, scoring 3 hits.
Black dot represents the initial position. The cannonball strikes the large model, but does not kill it, so the shot does not go through the unit behind.

Direct Hit(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Damage is resolved differently depending on whether or not the cannon ball hits a model directly or not. Normal Cannons have both the Multiple Wounds (D6) and (D3) special rules. It inflicts D6 Wounds only if the cannon ball lands directly on a model (that is, where the marker is placed after the first artillery and scatter dice are rolled), models hit by the bounce only suffer D3 Wounds. Great Cannons on the other hand, inflicts D6 Wounds on both direct hits and the bounce.

Grapeshot(Main Rulebook, p. 113)

Instead of firing normal shot, cannon crew can opt to fire grapeshot. They do this by loading the gun with rusty nails, handgun bullets and other small projectiles – effectively creating a huge blunderbuss.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12"5-

Firing Grapeshot(Main Rulebook, p. 113)

To fire grapeshot, select a target according to the normal rules for shooting. With the target chosen, roll an artillery dice and a D6 to find out how many shots are fired. If the artillery dice result is a misfire, roll a D6 on the Black Powder War Machine Misfire chart to find out what has gone wrong.

Assuming that a misfire did not occur, roll to hit the target with a number of shots equal to the number rolled on the artillery dice plus the D6, resolving any successful hits using the grapeshot profile.

Black Powder Misfire Chart (Main Rulebook, p. 113)

D6

Result

1-2

Destroyed! The gun explodes with a thunderous noise. Shards of metal and wood fly in all directions, leaving a hole in the ground and a cloud of black acrid smoke.

The war machine is destroyed.

3-4

Malfunction. The charge fails to ignite and the barrel must be emptied before the war machine can fire again.

The war machine therefore cannot fire this turn or in the controlling player's next turn. Either turn the war machine model round or place a marker of some kind to indicate this.

5-6

May Not Shoot. A minor error has occurred, perhaps the fuse was not properly set or the crewmen mishandled the loading procedure.

The war machine is unharmed and can shoot as normal again in the controlling player's next turn.

Stone Throwers(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Stone throwers are destructive weapons that lob large rocks into the air, sending them crashing down into the enemy ranks. The largest stone throwers can hurl a projectile big enough to flatten monsters or knock down city walls.

Unless otherwise specified, a stone thrower has the following profile:

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
12-60"4(10)-

You'll notice that a stone thrower has two Strength values, one of which is in brackets – don't worry about this for now.

Firing a Stone Thrower(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

To fire a stone thrower, first pivot to face the target following the normal rules for war machines. Then, nominate a model or building within the stone thrower's line of sight (ignoring other models within the same unit), outside of its minimum range and within its maximum range. Then, take the small round (3") template and place it with the centre directly over the target.

The template cannot be placed over friendly models, or enemy models from a unit that is engaged in combat, as the crew refuse to deliberately target their allies (although the shot might well go wide and hit friends by mistake as we'll discover later).

Scatter(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Once the template has been placed, roll for scatter using a scatter dice and an artillery dice. If a misfire is rolled on the artillery dice, something has gone wrong – roll on the Stone Thrower Misfire table to discover just what that is. Regardless of the result rolled, the stone thrower does not shoot this turn.

Assuming that you didn't roll a misfire on the artillery dice, it's now time to find out whether or not your shot was on target.

If a hit is rolled on the scatter dice, the shot has landed on target – any creature foolish or unlucky enough to be nearby is going to regret it very soon. In this case, we ignore the number shown on the artillery dice – the hit is all we need.

If an arrow is rolled, the shot has missed its original target and scatters off elsewhere. Move the template a distance in inches equal to the result of the artillery dice, in the direction shown on the scatter dice.

Damage(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Regardless of whether or not your shot landed exactly where you intended, it's time to see who's been flattened by it.

The model (if there is one) under the template's central hole is unlucky enough to be hit directly by the stone thrower's massive payload – they take an automatic hit at the higher of the stone thrower's two Strengths (normally 10). If the template has scattered, there's a good chance the centre hole will lie over two or more models. Nonetheless, only one can be hit by the higher Strength, so select one randomly.

Other models wholly or partially beneath the template avoid being clobbered by the main payload, but instead are showered by bits of loose rock and, after the payload has landed, fast-moving chunks of battlefield (and possibly bits of the warrior who took the full brunt of the shot). Such models are hit automatically at the stone thrower's lower Strength (normally 4).

The stone thrower's Multiple Wounds (D6) special rule applies only to the high-Strength hit caused against the model under the template's central hole – unsaved wounds from the low Strength hit are not multiplied. This makes the stone thrower very good at disposing of enemy monsters and other resilient models as well as dealing horrendous damage to massed ranks of enemy warriors.

As the rock blocks line of sight to the centre of the unit, the template is instead placed to the side of the unit, as centrally as possible. Here, 11 models are hit, with the model under the hole suffering a Strength 10 hit rather than Strength 4.

Firing Indirectly(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

As a stone thrower lobs its shots in a high arc, it can be used to attack enemies that are hidden from its view. Such shots are inaccurate at best, as the stone thrower's crew essentially have to guess where their foe lies, working from fragmented and often unreliable information provided by other warriors.

If you wish to fire indirectly, declare that you will do so before taking the stone thrower's shot. An indirect shot does not require line of sight, but is otherwise treated as a normal shot and has the usual requirements (the target needs to be in range and outside the minimum range of the stone thrower).

An indirect shot is not as accurate as one where the crew can see their target. If an arrow is rolled on the scatter dice, resolve the scatter as normal. If however, you roll a Hit! on the scatter dice, the shot does not land on target (as would normally be the case) but merely scatters less – how much less depends greatly on the skill of the crew. You'll notice the Hit! symbol has a small arrow at the top of it – this indicates the direction of scatter for an indirect shot – the distance travelled is equal to the score shown on the artillery dice minus the crew's Ballistic Skill characteristic (to a minimum of zero!).

Other than the aforementioned inaccuracy of the scatter, an indirect shot from a stone thrower is treated exactly according to the rules given for normal shots given above.

Stone Thrower Misfire Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

D6

Result

1

Destroyed! The stone thrower cannot take the strain! Bits of wood and metal fly all around, the stone tumbles to the ground, crushing the war machine and throwing debris into the air.

The war machine is destroyed.

2-3

Disabled: A freak occurrence disrupts the normal smooth operation of the stone thrower, and one of the crew has been caught in the firing mechanism.

The stone thrower suffers a wound, with no armour saves allowed. The stone thrower cannot fire this turn or in the controlling player's next turn. Either turn the war machine around or place a marker of some kind to indicate this.

4-6

May Not Shoot: A minor error has occurred, perhaps the stone was dropped or part of the machinery jams.

The stone thrower is unharmed and can shoot as normal again in the controlling player's next turn.

Fire Throwers(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Though its designs are many and varied, a fire thrower always consists of an airtight copper-lined barrel and a fluid chamber filled with a sticky alchemical sludge - normally a mixture of sulphurous compounds, black powder and combustible oils.

When triggered, the fire thrower sets loose a burst of these noxious chemicals, which immediately set light upon contact with the air, incinerating anyone unfortunate enough to be caught in the blast.

Unless otherwise specified, a fire thrower has the following profile:

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
-5-

Firing a Fire Thrower(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Place the teardrop-shaped template with its narrow end touching the fire thrower barrel and the large end aimed at any enemy model or building in line of sight. Roll the artillery dice and move the template directly forward the number of inches indicated – this is where the burst of flame lands. The template can overshoot a target, representing the crew firing in too high an arc. Some fire throwers might also have a range value. In this case, place the template with its narrow end anywhere within this range, measured from the fire thrower barrel as normal.

The template cannot be placed over friendly models, enemy models from a unit that is engaged in combat, or in such a way that the template might hit a friendly unit as the crew refuse to deliberately target their allies.

All models underneath the template are hit automatically. A unit suffering any casualties must take a Panic test. Fire Throwers are not physical attacks.

A misfire means the weapon does not fire – roll on the Black Powder War Machine Misfire chart to find out what went wrong.

Battlefield Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

A Warhammer battle can take place anywhere, on the edge of a town, amid cursed ruins, in the uttermost depths of a Dwarf hold, on the treacherous and frozen slopes of a mountain pass or even amid the upper minarets of an Elven city. The fighting a Warhammer Battle chapter explains how to set up your battlefield. Here you will find the rules for the many types of terrain and building you can fight over.

Types of Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

In the Warhammer world, even something as familiar as a stone wall can offer all manner of possibilities. Granted, the wall might just be a boundary line of some kind – but there's probably more to it than that. It might be the remains of a mighty Bretonnian castle, warded against the Undead. Or it could be that the wall was made from stolen grave markers, and unquiet spirits linger nearby. Perhaps the wall is the remains of some calcified Daemon just waiting for a magical charge to bring it back to life. There are dozens upon dozens of possibilities, and that's just a wall. You'd be hard-pressed to find something more ordinary in the normal run of things – but this is the Warhammer world, and almost nothing here is normal.

Over the next few pages you'll find some examples of terrain rules, covering the mundane through to the arcane. Many of the terrain pieces in the Warhammer range have specific rules that apply to them, and you'll find that whatever you have in your terrain collection there will be suitable rules here, or at least inspiration for devising your own.

Open Ground(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

Open terrain is the most prevalent type of battlefield terrain and thus the 'default' setting – any terrain not specifically classed as something else is to be treated as open ground. All the rules as presented thus far assume that your game is being played on open terrain – grassy fields, sandy flats, sun-parched earth, and so on. It therefore doesn't affect the game, and we don't need to provide any further detail.

Impassable Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

Impassable terrain covers those areas of the board that our warriors physically cannot enter as a matter of course, or to which they cannot seek entry without an immediate and probably messy death.

Impassable terrain therefore covers such things as lava fields, deep lakes or chasms. Units cannot voluntarily deploy in, enter, move or cross through impassable terrain – they must go around. Remember that units can flee through impassable terrain, although they will have to take Dangerous Terrain tests if they do so. Impassable terrain has a Line of Sight value of 5.

Dangerous Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

Some areas of terrain are incredibly treacherous and present a very real risk to life and limb.

When a model marches, charges, flees, overruns or pursues into or through an area of dangerous terrain, it is called upon to take a Dangerous Terrain test – roll a D6. On a 2-6, the model successfully negotiates the dangers of the terrain and reaches its destination safe and sound. If a 1 is rolled, however, the model has suffered a terrible mishap and suffers a wound with no armour saves allowed.

A mounted warrior has many advantages over their footslogging comrades, but does risk being thrown from the saddle when riding at speed. A galloping horse can trip on a tree root, hurling the rider into a boulder, or can duck low under a branch, but alas not quite low enough for the rider... As such, cavalry, monstrous cavalry, chariots and shrines treat all terrain other than open ground as being dangerous terrain, as described above. A chariot or shrine that fails a Dangerous Terrain test suffers D6 Wounds instead of 1.

Hills(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Hills are natural outcrops of rock and earth. Few pieces of terrain are as strategically important as a hill. From its slopes your troops can rain missile fire down upon the foe, or form a battleline upon its crest.

All hills use the rules given below.

Hills and Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

A hill has a Line of Sight value of 2 for each 'level' it has. Models standing on top of a hill level add this to their Line of Sight value.

Hills and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Unless otherwise stated, hills are treated as open ground. Amongst other things, this means that hills do not cause Dangerous Terrain tests in cavalry and other mounted models.

Hills and Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Models on a hill are more likely to be able to trace a line of sight past other models on a lower level, making hills practical vantage points for your missile troops.

Hills and Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Remember that if your unit charged and the majority of the models in the unit began the turn uphill from the enemy unit(s) that were charged, you receive +1 combat result.

Examples of Hills(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Hills have almost infinite variety. They can be different shapes, varied heights and composed of diverse materials.

Anvil of Vaul(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

The legends of Ulthuan tell that when the Daemons first broke into the world, the smith-god Vaul descended from the heavens. It is said that they travelled to every corner of the globe, raising stone anvils from the living rock upon which they crafted blades of great potency, which the Elves used to defend their realms. Though the weapons and their wielders have long since gone, many of the anvils remain. Mere proximity to an Anvil of Vaul bestows a warrior's weapons with incredible enchantment.

Any unit within 6" of an Anvil of Vaul gains the Flaming Attacks and Magical Attacks special rule.

Scree Slope(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

The slopes of this hill are covered with loose shards and splinters of rock, making the going incredibly treacherous. Many approaches to Dwarf holds are flanked by such slopes, providing an extra layer to their defence.

Models charging, marching, fleeing, pursuing or overrunning up, down or through a scree slope must take a Dangerous Terrain test.

Temple of Skulls(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

There are many unholy sites dedicated to the worship of the Chaos Gods and this is but one of them. Ruin and war may have laid it waste, have scattered its trophies and tumbled its grim statues, but the gazes of the Dark Gods still rest upon its battered stones, hungrily seeking a new champion to bend to their perverse amusements...

At the beginning of each player turn, any character or champion on the Temple of Skulls can choose to embrace the favour of the Chaos Gods. If they do, roll a D6. On a roll of 2-6, one randomly chosen characteristic increases by D3 points. On a 1, the Chaos Gods take their soul – remove the model as a casualty with no saves of any kind allowed.

Forests(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

Forests are excellent places for troops to lurk in ambush – the choking foliage offers a great deal of protection against missile fire.

All forests and woods use the rules given below.

Forests and Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

A forest has a Line of Sight of 5. Models in or behind forests cannot see or be seen through it if there is more than 5" of forest between them and the enemy. If it is less than 5", they can see and be seen through it for all purposes, as long as you can draw a Line of Sight to them as normal. The ‘base’ of the forest is otherwise not considered to block line of sight.

Forests and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

Models with the Fly special rule that begin or end a flying move in a forest must take a Dangerous Terrain test.

Forests and Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

A unit in a forest counts as being in soft cover provided that the majority of its models are within the forest. Similarly, if a model in a shooting unit has to trace its line of fire through a forest (because it's shooting at a target beyond the forest), then the target benefits from soft cover. This applies even if during the game you rearranged a forest's trees around a unit, or even removed them – just imagine the trees are still in their original position. This penalty does not apply if the shooting model is drawing a line of sight out of a forest it is in.

Forests and Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

It is difficult to form tight ranks when fighting in a forest. A unit with the majority of its models fighting in a forest can therefore never gain rank bonus.

Examples of Forests(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

Here are a few examples of forests you can use in your Warhammer games – this is by no means a definitive list, but should prove a fertile starting point for your own imagination. Who knows what hellspawn lurks in there?

Ancient Forest(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

This forest is old and gnarled, with thick roots covering the ground and slowing down movement.

Any unit at least partially within the Ancient Forest suffer a -1 penalty to their Movement value.

Abyssal Wood(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

A cloud of malice lies over this wood provoking irrational fears and dark imaginings in the minds of those that enter.

A unit with the majority of its models within an Abyssal Wood suffer -1 to their Leadership. This has no effect on models with Immunity (Psychology).

Blood Forest(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

Though these trees slumber fitfully through the cycles of the world nearby use of magic infuses them with bloodlust...

Whenever a spell is successfully cast by (or at) a model in a blood forest, all units wholly or partially within it suffer D6 Strength 4 hits as the trees go into a feeding frenzy. When any hits have been resolved, the Blood Forest moves 2D6" in a random direction, moving around any intervening terrain features by the shortest route. This does not move the models that were in the Blood Forest, it simply 'walks' off, and leaves them behind.

Fungus Forest(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

These trees are infested by a chromatic array of mushrooms. It's best not to breathe in too deeply...

Any unit at least partially within the Fungus Forest is subject to the rules for Stupidity. Any Forest Goblin unit at least partially within the Fungus Forest is also Stubborn.

Venom Thicket(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

Poisonous creatures abound within. Provided you do not succumb to it first, their venom can be used against the foe.

Any model in a Venom Thicket has the Poisoned Attacks special rule (applies to close combat attacks only). However, any model moving through a Venom Thicket must take a Dangerous Terrain test, to represent their attempt to fend off the venomous critters within.

Wildwood(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

To walk beneath the twisted boughs of a Wildwood is folly indeed, for the trees are wrathful.

Roll for any unit at least partially within the Wildwood at the end of the Movement phase. On a 4+, the unit suffers D6 Strength 4 hits.

Rivers(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

The reassuring and impeding flow of a river can help an army protect its flank or otherwise slow the enemy advance. Launching an assault across a river is no easy task, and often the fords, bridges and other crossing points become crucial objectives for the opposing armies.

All rivers use the rules given below.

Rivers and Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

For Line of Sight purposes, treat rivers as open terrain.

Rivers and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

The crushing weight of the water makes it impossible to march through a river. Movement is otherwise unaffected.

Rivers and Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

River make for very treacherous footing and, as such, are about the last place a ranked-up unit wants to conduct its battles. A unit at least partially in a river can never gain rank bonus.

Bridges and Other Crossings(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

Most rivers have at least one place at which they can be crossed, such as a bridge or a ford. Such crossing points should normally be treated as open terrain, but only if the unit attempting to use the crossing point is in a narrow enough formation to fit across, otherwise treat the entire unit as being in the river! Whether or not a unit is narrow enough will normally be fairly clear.

Examples of Rivers(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

Here are a few examples of rivers you can use in your Warhammer games – this is by no means a definitive list, but should prove a fertile starting point for your own imagination. It might look like water, but is it really?

Boiling Flood(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

This river's waters are boiling with incredible fury – it's best to cross quickly, lest you never leave the river at all.

Any model at least partially in the boiling flood at the end of any turn suffers a Strength 4 hit with no armour saves allowed. Models that are immune to Flaming Attacks do not suffer from this effect.

Necrotic Ooze(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

Only the stench of this thick and lifeless sludge can compete with its toxic virulence. Those crossing this river had best hold their breath.

Necrotic ooze counts as dangerous terrain for all models. Additionally, a unit that moves through necrotic ooze gains the Poisoned Attacks special rule until the end of the following player turn, so vile are the waters that cling to their blades.

Raging Torrent(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

The icy rivers of the high mountains run clear, pure and very swift indeed.

A raging torrent is dangerous terrain that causes models to fail their Dangerous Terrain test on a 1-2 instead of just 1's.

River of Blood(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

When the rivers of the world turn to blood it is a sign that Khorne has regained ascendancy at the head of the unholy pantheon of the Realm of Chaos. The time of the Blood God has come!

A unit that moves or charges through a River of Blood is counted as causing Fear until the end of the following player turn, so ghastly is their blood-slicked appearance.

River of Light(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

This is no mere river, but a swirling and seething mass of Light Magic.

When a unit enters a River of Light, it is immediately the target of a randomly chosen Light Magic spell (see the Lores of Magic). The spell is automatically cast and cannot be dispelled. If the spell has a choice of different casting values, it is assumed to be cast at the lower value.

Marshland(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

A battle in a marsh can easily end in disaster – the footing is unstable, the mud clings to weapons and as many warriors drown as are hacked apart by the foe. Marshes are therefore best employed as traps to suck your enemy into, rather than bastions from which to fight.

All marshland uses the rules given below.

Marshland and Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

For Line of Sight purposes, treat marshland as open terrain.

Marshland and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

If a unit is at least partially within marshland, it suffers a -1 penalty to its Movement value. Marshland is dangerous terrain for all units, other than those with the Skirmish special rule. Cavalry, monstrous cavalry, chariots and shrines that enter marshland fail their Dangerous Terrain tests on a 1 or 2, rather than a 1.

Examples of Marshland(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

Here are a few examples of marshlands you can use in your Warhammer games – this is by no means a definitive list, but should prove a fertile starting point for your own imagination. Although all marshland is dangerous, its nature (and degree of the peril) can vary greatly.

Earthblood Mere(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

Raw magical power of the lifewind Ghyran bubbles through the waters of this marsh.

Any unit with the majority of its models within the mere has Regeneration (6+).

Khemrian Quicksand(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

The burning desert hides a multitude of traps. Many an unwary warrior has been sucked to their death by the shifting sands of Khemri – the larger the victim, the more certain the fate.

A monster, monstrous infantry or monstrous cavalry model that fails its dangerous terrain test for Khemrian Quicksand is removed as a casualty with no saves of any kind allowed.

Mist-Wreathed Swamp(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

The vapours of this swamp hang in the chill air, hiding those within from the gaze of their enemy. Yet who knows what horrors lurk within the mist, just waiting to pounce?

If the majority of a unit's models are wholly within a mist-wreathed swamp, the unit counts as being in hard cover.

However, at the end of each Movement phase, the unit must pass an Initiative test, or have D6 Infantry models dragged to their doom by the monstrous Fimir lurking in the mist (the victims are selected in the same manner as the allocation of shooting hits). Fimir models are not affected by this.

Obstacles(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

This category covers all long and narrow terrain types, such as fences, walls and hedges.

Obstacles and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

If a cavalry, monstrous cavalry, chariot or shrine model marches, charges, flees, pursues or overruns over an obstacle, or charges an enemy on the other side of an obstacle, it must take a Dangerous Terrain test.

Obstacles do not otherwise impede movement. If a unit ends its move with some of its ranks or files on different sides of the obstacle, simply place the models appropriately on both sides of the obstacle – the unit suffers no ill-effects.

Obstacles as Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

An obstacle offers a greater measure of protection against missile fire to models hiding behind it. An obstacle has a Line of Sight value of 0. If a firer is shooting at a model that is behind an obstacle and in base contact with it, the target model counts as in cover (of the appropriate type). We assume that the warrior takes shelter behind the obstacle. When firing against a unit, the majority of its models must be behind the obstacle in order to benefit from this additional protection.

Firing models that are themselves in base contact with an obstacle may ignore it for the purposes of line of sight, just as if the obstacle was not there – they will lean over it as they fire.

Obstacles and Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

If one of your units is charging an enemy who is touching the other side of an obstacle, the obstacle counts as 'defended'. Measure the charge distance to the obstacle, rather than the enemy unit. Similarly, if the charge is successful, move your unit into contact with the obstacle rather than the unit itself.

Essentially, we assume the enemy push forward to fight over the obstacle – your models count as being in base contact with the enemy behind the obstacle, as if it wasn't there, and must charge in such a way as to maximise the number of models from both sides that can fight, using the normal rules for charging.

To represent the formidable defensive position offered by the obstacle, any models from a charging unit that are in base contact with an obstacle will suffer penalties depending on the type of obstacle. This modifier only applies when the unit charges, not in subsequent rounds of the combat.

If the charged unit is not in contact with the obstacle, treat it just as you would for the purposes of movement. If there isn't room for a rank of charging models to fit between the obstacle and the charged unit, it is perfectly acceptable to remove the obstacle whilst the combat goes on (put it back again as soon as possible).

It's hard to maintain the impetus of a charge in a confined area, so models attacking a unit behind an obstacle lose all charging bonuses. This means, for instance, that they do not receive the normal +1 combat result, gain no bonuses for lances and similar weapons, and do not make Impact Hits.

Examples of Obstacles(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

Here are a few examples of obstacles you can use in your Warhammer games – this is by no means a definitive list, but should prove a fertile starting point for your own imagination.

Blessed Bulwark(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

It is common practice in the Empire for a Warrior Priest to bless any wall which might have to serve in the battle against the foul creatures of Chaos. Such enchantment lingers on long after it takes root, and even endures through the destruction of the wall itself. Many farming fields and fortress walls in the Empire are bounded by walls constructed of stolen fragments from the blessed bulwarks, and retain a portion of that power.

Blessed bulwarks are obstacles that grant hard cover to units behind them, and a -1 To Hit modifier to charging models in base contact with them. In addition to this, models from the Forces of Destruction (Allied Armies) that are in base contact with the obstacle must halve their Initiative.

Blazing Barricade(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

The original blazing barricades were magical obstacles called into existence by High Elf mages as they fought for survival during the initial daemonic invasions. Though that was now thousands of years ago, the magic that created the blazing barricades still dwells within the ground.

Blazing barricades grant soft cover to units behind them. If a unit completes a charge against a defended blazing barricade, it immediately suffers one Strength 4 hit on each of its models in contact with the obstacle.

Fences and Hedges(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

Fences are gnarled and twisted constructions of wood and lath. Though fences are chiefly designed to keep herd animals in a particular location, determined warriors can also use a fence as a rough bulwark in order to keep enemies out!

Fences are obstacles that grant soft cover to units behind them, and a -1 To Hit modifier to charging models in base contact with them.

Ghost Fence(Main Rulebook, p. 122)

A Ghost Fence is a barrier with little physical substance – merely a series of poles or posts upon which are hung accursed fetishes and totems to which daemonic or Undead spirits have been bound with forbidden spells. Only a brave or foolish warrior crosses a ghost fence without good cause – or without powerful protective wards.

Ghost Fences are obstacles that grant soft cover to units behind them. A unit that is defending a Ghost Fence causes Fear in the first round of any close combat.

Wall(Main Rulebook, p. 122)

Walls are a common sight, serving as boundaries between fields, estates and even burial sites. Though such a wall is seldom more than chest-height, it makes for an incredibly effective impromptu defensive position, and can save the warriors sheltering in its lee from otherwise fatal encounters with arrows, crossbow bolts and buckshot.

Walls are obstacles that grant hard cover to units behind them, and a -1 To Hit modifier to charging models in base contact with them.

Mystical Monuments(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

Thousands of years of struggle and conquest have left the Warhammer world strewn with mystical relics, monuments and ruins. A battle will often be fought for the control or the defence of such a place, and for the awesome power it commands.

This is essentially a catch-all category for things that don't fit comfortably in other sections. Mystical Monuments are best treated as impassable terrain for the purposes of movement and Line of Sight. Particularly large or complex Mystical Monuments might be made up of several terrain elements, such as hills or obstacles.

Examples of Mystical Monuments(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

As with the arcane architecture that follows later, the sky really is the limit for Mystical Monuments. Who knows what mighty magical constructs await discovery by your armies?

Altar of Khaine(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

Though their worship is now relegated chiefly to the chill land of Naggaroth, many altars consecrated to the Elven god of murder remain throughout the world. Warriors who fight in Khaine's shadow do so with bloodlust awakened in their souls.

All units within 6" of an Altar of Khaine are subject to the rules for Frenzy – as soon as a unit moves out of range, the Frenzy is lost. If a unit is already subject to Frenzy, they gain +2 Attacks instead, but must re-roll the Leadership to restrain themselves from charging.

Arcane Ruins(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

The stones of fallen temples still resonate magical energy centuries after their final celebrants crumbled to dust.

Any Wizard within 6" of an arcane ruin may re-roll failed attempts to channel power and dispel dice.

Bane Stone(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

Not even the most learned of scholars knows origins of the Bane Stones. Some folk maintain the Beastmen raised them in tribute to their blasphemous gods, others that they are jagged of magic made manifest through careless sorcery. Whatever the truth, to battle in a Bane Sum's shadow is to invite swift death, for the stones hungry and fresh souls are their food.

Hits made against units within 6" of a Bane Stone have a +1 bonus to wound.

Charnel Pit(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

In a world of unremitting war, a decent burial something granted to only the luckiest, for the remainder, eternal repose begins in a mass grave, with enough stones atop to deter wild beasts, and enough icons to draw down the blessings of various gods of the dead. Alas, most such charnel pits Necromancers and other dark sorcerers like, well, vultures to carrion. By the time these foul folk have finished with the pit's contents, it is sure to be more than a blood-slicked pit, strewn with body puts and a lingering unholy taint that instills fear in but the bravest warriors.

All units within 6" of the charnel pit suffer a -1 penalty to their Leadership. Undead units within 6" of the charnel pit have the Regeneration (6+) special rule to represent their easy access to replacement parts.

Elven Waystone(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

There are countless Elven Waystones scattered throughout the world, ancient monuments to the once globe-spanning glory of the children of Ulthuan. Yet these towering edifices are more than mere markers of a sundered past. It is through the Waystones that the Elves siphon excess magical energy from the world A learned enough wizard can tap into the Way stone's magical current and thus purloin its energies for their own use.

Any Wizard within 6" of an Elven Waystone adds +1 to their channelling attempts.

Idol of Gork(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

Prior to a great battle, Orcs raise crude idols of their brutish gods so that their deities might find amusement in the forthcoming destruction. Many of these idols are crafted from mud and dung, and so are quickly worn away by the elements. Some, though, are roughly hewn from boulders or the defaced statues of other races. These can stand against the weather for centuries, allowing Mork (or possibly Gork) an uninterrupted grandstand view of the passing centuries' carnage.

Any warriors fighting under the grim gaze of Mork (or possibly Gork) are infused with the greenskin gods' lust for battle. Units that start the turn within 6" of the Idol can re-roll a failed charge distance roll.

Magic Circle(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

Ancient mannish ruins, raised to empower primitive rites, magic circles can dissipate harmful sorcery and offer protection to those nearby.

Units within 6" of the Magic Circle have the Magic Resistance (2) special rule.

Sinister Statue(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

Witless watchmen, set to stand sentinel over secret shrines by an ancient and unknown force, these sinister statues take exception to interlopers in a most forceful fashion.

At the start of each player turn, roll a dice for every unit within 6" of the Sinister Statue. On a 4 or more, nothing happens - the statue either doesn't notice the unit, or recognises it as an ally of its forgotten master. On a 1-3, beams of light blaze out of its stone eyes – the unit suffers D6 Strength 4 hits.

Sorcerous Portal(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

A sorcerous portal is prone to appear where certain contours of hill and valley funnel the Winds of Magic in unexpected ways. Many are caged and harnessed by ambitious sorcerers, but wood and stone cannot easily contain raw magic.

At the start of the Magic phase, after power and dispel dice have been generated, but before spells are cast, the sorcerous portal belches forth energy in the form of a spell. Roll 2D6 on the table below each time to see what spell is cast.

2D6

Result

2-4

Soulblight (Lore of Death)

5-6

Wyssan's Wildform (Lore of Beasts)

7

Plague of Rust (Lore of Metal)

8-9

The Speed of Light (Lore of Light)

10-12

Fireball (Lore of Fire)

The spell does not need line of sight, always targets the closest unit (regardless of range, if the unit is in combat and so on), is automatically cast and cannot be dispelled. If the spell has a choice of casting values, it is assumed to be cast at the lower value.

Wyrding Well(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

It is said that Wyrding Wells are set upon sites where the blood of the world bubbles to the surface. This amber liquid has magical, if unpredictable, properties and is a prized ingredient in many potions and elixirs.

Providing it is not in combat, a unit within 3" can drink from the well at the end of its Movement phase. Roll a D6 on the following table to discover the outcome of the unit's incautious imbibing:

D6

Result

1

Magical Poisoning: Models in the unit cannot make any voluntary action (including shooting, casting spells, channelling, using magic items and so on) until the start of the following turn, whilst copious vomiting ensues.

2-4

Ailments Banished: The unit immediately recovers 2D6 wounds' worth of models, as described for the Lore of Life Regrowth spell (see the Lores of Magic section).

5-6

The Gift of Oblivion: The coursing earthblood erases all fear and sensation from the minds of the drinkers. The unit is subject to the rules for Stupidity and is Unbreakable for the remainder of the game.

Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

Buildings are, without doubt, amongst the most important pieces of terrain on a battlefield. They offer substantial protection to those inside, are a good vantage point for models that can make ranged attacks. Warriors firmly ensconced in a building can only be driven out by a determined assault.

As with other terrain elements, players should identify at the start of the game all pieces of terrain for which they are going to make use of the buildings rules given here. This is important, as during the game these rules may give a clear advantage to some units.

As with any terrain pieces, a small amount of common sense will go a long way when dealing with buildings. Players may agree to treat some buildings as impassable (very small ones, or those with a strange shape, for example). Similarly, players may want to divide very large buildings into several parts, each of which counts as a separate building for the purposes of the following rules. We'll discuss that in a little more detail later - for the moment, let's take a look at the overall rules for buildings.

Buildings and Line Of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

For Line of Sight purposes, a building has a Line of Sight value of 5 for each floor it has. Models add +5 to their Line of Sight value for every floor they are on above the first one.

Buildings and Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

For the most part, buildings act as impassable terrain (the rules for which were given earlier in this chapter). That said, we do allow units to enter buildings and 'garrison' them. This might seem a bit strange, but it's nice and clear in terms of rules. Basically, we don't want units moving through a building as if it were not there, and nor do we want them 'sitting' on top of it. If it's a building and you're a unit, you're either garrisoning, or not in contact with it.

Garrisoning a Building(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

A unit can enter and garrison an unoccupied building if it can move into base contact with the building during the Movement phase. Some units simply cannot enter buildings – the members of the regiment are just too big – unless differently specified, only infantry, war beasts and swarms can garrison a building. War machines can be deployed in buildings, but only if there is space to deploy the model on the top floor. Units cannot garrison a building in the same turn in which they have marched or made a reform.

When a unit garrisons a building, you'll normally find that there's not enough room for the models in or on the structure (or that placing them in the building just looks silly). It's perfectly acceptable to place a representative model from the unit in, on or next to the building to remind you that the unit is inside (standard bearers are the best for this!), and place the rest of the unit aside from the battlefield. The main thing you're trying to achieve is to leave a recognisable reminder as to the building's occupants for both you and your opponent as the game goes on.

Only Room for One(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

Each building can hold a single unit of any size and any characters that have joined it – once garrisoned, no other units can enter the structure unless the previous tenants have left (or been driven out). Note that characters can join a garrison unit by moving into base contact with the building.

Abandoning a Building(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

A garrison unit can exit a building in their Remaining Moves sub-phase, though not in the same turn that it garrisoned the structure. Place the unit in any desired legal formation, with at least one model of the rear rank 1" away from the building and no model within 1" of the building. Note that no model may be placed more than double their movement value away from the building. The unit may not move any further in a turn that it exits a building – it's too busy reordering its battle formation. This is the only way a garrison can voluntarily leave a building – it cannot charge out of a building, for example.

A unit that is Frenzied, or is otherwise forced to charge, still cannot do so if it is in a building – it must instead exit the building as close as possible to the enemy instead of charging.

Buildings and Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

Buildings do not offer any additional protection against magic missiles, spells that affect the entire unit, that target individual models, etc. Spells that use templates and damage inflicted by Miscasts will follow the rules given later for templates, hitting D6 models. Wizards inside a building may cast spells as normal following the rules for line of sight and range given below.

Buildings and Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

Most buildings can easily be pressed into service as impromptu firebases. Most have plenty of windows, doors or otherwise gaping holes in the structure through which a warrior can poke a crossbow or other such ranged weapons. Even if there aren't any pre-existing firepoints in a building, the garrison can normally knock their own loopholes in the wall as needed.

A garrison unit can shoot in the Shooting phase, tracing line of sight from any point on the building. The forward arc of the garrison unit is assumed to be 360 degrees (i.e. all around) so we don't need to worry about that either. The range for a garrison's shooting attacks is always measured from the closest point of the building. Note that War Machines must still pivot on the spot as normal.

Five Per Floor(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

When a garrison unit shoots, there are only so many vantage points to shoot from. We normally assume only five models can shoot per floor of the building, although you may want to agree a different number with your opponent before the game begins.

Shooting at a Garrison Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

Enemy models can shoot at the building's garrison, provided that they can trace line of sight to the building and that it lies within their forward arc. Naturally, we assume that the building itself provides a certain amount of protection, so we treat the garrison as being in hard cover – shots are otherwise resolved normally. Note that the garrison unit is considered to be too spread out to be affected normally by attacks that can affect multiple ranks, such as bolt throwers – shooting attacks of this nature will only hit one model.

Template Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

Weapons that use a template, such as a stone thrower or cannon, inflict D6 hits on any unit in a building that is touched by the template. If a building is hit by a stone thrower, these hits are resolved at the higher Strength only if the centre of the template lies over the building, otherwise the lower Strength is used instead. However, no single model can suffer more than one hit from any template weapon.

For example, a building is hit by a cannonball. The unit inside suffers D6 Strength 10 hits. As the cannon has the Multiple Wounds (D6) special rule, all unsaved wounds will multiply to D6.

Assaulting a Building(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

The only way to take an occupied building is by the bloody tactic of storming in with one of your units. This is called an assault. Each occupied building may be assaulted by a single unit during each Movement phase. The assaulting unit must declare a charge against the unit in the building (in which case, you need to have Line of Sight to the building itself, not the models within). There can be no multiple assault charges against a building, as the assaulting unit is imagined to surround it. If multiple units are forced to declare a charge against an enemy-occupied building, only one can complete the charge – the controlling player decides which one will do so after rolling the charge distances. The other units automatically fail their charges.

An assault charge is resolved just as if the building were the target unit. If the unit's charge distance is equal to or greater than the distance to the building, it is successful, otherwise the charge is failed as normal. A unit that is assaulting the building is not allowed to charge another target at the same time – it must wheel to bring as many models as possible into contact with the building and close the door in such a manner that it does not contact any enemy units when the charge is completed.

If a unit that is assaulting a building is itself charged, the assault on the building is abandoned (move the unit that was assaulting the building backward 1") The two units outside the building are now engaged in combat instead and will fight a round of combat this turn.

Troop types that cannot garrison buildings may still assault them (except chariots – such actions would result in a very broken chariot for no tangible gain). Should the assault successfully drive the defender out of the building, the models cannot garrison the structure in their place. In the case of cavalry and monstrous cavalry, only the riders may attack in close combat.

Charge Reactions(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

A garrison unit can only choose to Hold or Stand and Shoot, it cannot choose to Flee! – it would take far longer for the garrison to exit the building than for the enemy to flow around the sides and run the garrison down. Even a failed Terror test will not exhort a garrison to Flee! – it is better to face a mind-numbing peril with four solid walls around you! Accordingly, a garrison that fails its Terror test does not flee as normal, but is forced to Hold.

Fighting the Assault(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

An assault isn't resolved in the same manner as a regular combat, as the two units involved are not in base contact with one another. Rather, we assume that a swirling melee takes place around the building's door, windows and other entryways, with the best fighters from either side pushing their way forwards into the fray.

It's hard to maintain the impetus of a charge in a confined area, so models assaulting or defending a building lose all charging bonuses. This means, for instance, that they do not receive the normal +1 combat result or Initiative, gain no charge bonuses from weapons (like spears, lances and pikes), and do not make Impact Hits.

Who Can Strike?(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

At the start of the Close Combat phase, before any blows are struck, both players must choose Unit Strength 10 worth of models (with a minimum of 1 model regardless of Unit Strength) from their unit to form the courageous assault party that will fight in the assault (if the unit numbers less than Unit Strength 10, there is no choice!). Most of the time this will mean ten identical warriors, or at least nine warriors and the unit champion, will form the assault party on each side in the assault, but where there are characters in one or both the units, this selection becomes very important. When it makes a difference, players should roll off to determine which side picks their assault party first.

A character that was not one of the ten models chosen to take part in a building assault cannot be one of the models that step up to replace casualties suffered in the assault, they are far too busy convincing their soldiers to take their place in the assault to get involved themself.

Allocating Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Blows are struck in Initiative order as normal and, unless the player specifies otherwise, are directed against any rank-and-file models involved in the assault. If characters or other models that can normally be singled out if they are in base contact are involved in the assault, then up to half the enemy models can choose to attack them (as often such heroes will be performing derring-do in the thick of fighting, at doorways or atop stairwells).

Note that casualties are taken from the 'back' of the unit as normal. If one side suffers casualties before it fights, extra models are assumed to step up and join the assault party in place of fallen comrades, assuming there are enough survivors to do so. So ten models will always get to fight, assuming there are enough left to do so!

Challenges(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

A single challenge may be issued and accepted as normal, but only models chosen as part of the two sides' assault parties can issue, accept and refuse challenges – you can't use the challenge to increase the number of models fighting.

Special Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

For special attacks (such as stomps) and items that affect models in base contact, a model fighting in a building is assumed to be in base contact with one enemy model nominated by the enemy player unless fighting in a challenge, of course, in which case they are in contact with the model they are fighting!

Combat Resolution(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

The victor of an assault is calculated as for a normal close combat, however combat result points can only be scored by inflicting wounds (including overkill wounds scored in a challenge, if there are any). Standards, ranks, flank and rear bonuses, and so on do not apply (the last two primarily because a unit in a building cannot really be said to have a flank or rear). A musician will still win a drawn combat, however (they spurs their fellows on to greater efforts). Otherwise, the close combat result is based purely on casualties.

Defender Loses(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

If the attacker wins, the defender must take a Break test. Note that units garrisoning buildings are always considered steadfast.

If the defender fails the Break test, then the garrison unit is placed outside, directly opposite the assaulting unit, as described for a unit abandoning a building. If this cannot be done, place it as near as possible to this position. It then makes its fleeing move as normal.

The attacker cannot pursue, but can enter the building if its controlling player wishes (and is of a troop type that is permitted to enter the building). If the unit does not enter the building it is moved directly backwards 1".

Other Outcomes(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

If the garrison does not flee the building, either because they've held the attacker to a draw or beaten them, or have lost the combat but passed their Break test, then the attacker must withdraw from the assault, and is nudged directly backward 1". The close combat ends, and the attacker must launch a new assault next turn (which they may regardless of whose turn it is) if they wish another attempt at driving the garrison out. Note that a unit that attacks or defends a building in two or more consecutive turns does not count as fighting a new first round of combat.

The assaulting unit does not have to take a Break test if the combat was lost. The warriors in the attacking unit know full well that the garrison cannot run them down if the combat goes poorly and automatically retreat in good order with no chance of a rout.

Sally Forth!(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

In case the attacking unit chooses to not attack the building after a failed assault, the defending unit may instead choose to sally forth (Frenzied units must pass a Leadership to restrain). This is treated just like assaulting a building, excepting that the now-defending unit is not automatically considered Steadfast and will flee as normal if they fail their Break test.

Buildings and Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Units garrisoning buildings take Panic tests normally – measure distances to the edge of the building. If the test is failed, they flee as described for units that break from combat.

In the same way, a unit that breaks from combat in a building, is destroyed while garrisoning a building, and so on, can trigger Panic tests in friendly units as normal.

Multipart Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

The rules given here assume that your building is of a fairly small size (less than 6" x 6") and composed of a fairly homogenous structure (i.e. is made out of the same kinds of materials). None of this is to say that you can't use bigger or more complicated buildings in your games, but you'll probably want to break them down into several sections, each to be treated as its own building, which can be occupied and assaulted separately.

Arcane Architecture(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Buildings of great power or importance are plentiful in the Warhammer world. Sometimes, this prominence comes from the magical nature of the place, at others, it comes from the resonance and sanctity awoken in the hearts of its defenders. Regardless, a battle fought over such a building will be a slaughter indeed.

A piece of arcane architecture can either be treated as a building or as impassable terrain (the doors are sealed by the defenders). Models that are inside Arcane Architecture are automatically in range of its effect.

Examples of Arcane Architecture(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Only your imagination can limit the types of arcane architecture you will battle over. Perhaps it's worth considering the kinds of buildings over which your army would be eager to fight?

Acropolis of Heroes(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

This ancient place was built long ago –perhaps it was even raised by the Old Ones themselves. Amongst its walls, half-buried by moss and rubble, lie the statues of fallen kings and heroes whose bold essence lingers on.

Units within 6" of the Acropolis of Heroes are Stubborn. A unit garrisoning the Acropolis of Heroes gets +1 to hit in close combat.

Dwarf Brewhouse(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Dwarf ale is by far the most famous and sought after beverage in the whole of the Warhammer world. Indeed, entire armies have been known to make a detour to a brewery in order to purchase (or, more normally, acquire by force of arms) a supply of heady Dwarf ale. It is little surprise, therefore, that most Dwarfs go to great lengths to fortify their brewhouses, and are careful to place several barrels of cheap, but highly intoxicating ale, beyond the walls as soon as a marching army enters view.

All units within 6" of a Dwarf Brewhouse have the Immunity (Psychology) and Stubborn special rules (the rich blend of hops, malts and secret ingredients renders them almost totally insensate to mortal fears). Dwarf units within 6" of the brewhouse are so fanatically defensive of it that they are Unbreakable, but must first pass a Leadership test, with a -3 modifier, if they want to move out of range of the building's effects.

Grail Chapel(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Grail Chapels can be found throughout the world. They are built upon sites where Bretonnian Knights have encountered the Lady of the Lake. Though Grail Chapels are often seemingly abandoned and ruined, the power of the Lady permeates every stone focusing energies of renewal and rebirth.

All units belonging to an army from the Forces of Order within 6" of a Grail Chapel have the Regeneration (6+) special rule. Bretonnian units within 6" of a Grail Chapel also have the Stubborn special rule.

Haunted Mansion(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Many an abandoned tower or mansion was once the abode of a Necromancer, whose dark sorceries could only be practised in secret. The Necromancer may long gone, but the poltergeists and revenants remain as any who enter will doubtless discover.

A haunted mansion is normally a building of some kind, but there's no reason why it can't be a ruin, or a cave. At the end of the Shooting phase, all units within 6" of the Haunted Mansion suffers D6 Strength 1 hits to represent the spectral strikes of the mansion's guardians. Due to the ghostly nature of these attacks, armour saves cannot be taken against them. This has no effect on models with the Undead special rule. A unit inside the haunted mansion causes Fear.

Nehekharan Sphynx(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Long ago, the rulers of Nehekhara bound the trickster spirits of the deserts into great temples. Legend tells that those who entreat a Sphynx receive great power – if they can quench the spirit's thirst for trickery and deception.

At the start of each player turn, the player whose turn it is can choose one of their characters within 6" of the Nehekharan Sphynx to challenge the spirit to a riddling contest. The challenger must take an Initiative test. If the test is failed, the Sphynx devours part of the challenger's soul and the model suffers a wound, with no armour saves allowed. If the test is passed, the challenger receives one of the following special rules, determined randomly, for the rest of the game: Devastating Charge, Heroic Killing Blow or Loremaster (Death) - this last one has no benefit to non-Wizards (i.e. only Wizards can actually use the spells!) but that doesn't stop the Sphynx bestowing it inappropriately.

Sigmarite Shrine(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

Sigmar Heldenhammer fought many battles to defend the nascent Empire from the forces of destruction. Though Sigmar has long since passed, the folk of the Empire still believe that they watches over their land. This might be thought mere superstition, save for the fact that evil creatures seem rather more vulnerable when they draw near to a Sigmarite Shrine...

Any models belonging to an army from the Forces of Destruction (see the Allied Armies chapter) must re-roll successful ward saves if they are within 6" of the Sigmarite Shrine.

Tower of Blood(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

The walls of this tower constantly ooze pulsing gore. The unnatural stench has a profound effect upon even the most feeble of fighters, engorging bloodlust and so transforming them into voracious slaughterers.

Units within 6" of the Tower of Blood have the Hatred special rule. Units from the Forces of Destruction within 6" of the Tower of Blood also have the Frenzy special rule – as soon as a unit moves out of range, the Hatred/Frenzy is lost.

Wizard's Tower(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

Wizards are solitary folk, little able to abide the simplistic minds of the mundane multitudes. Little wonder therefore that the mightiest wizards construct great towers to serve as lodging, library and stronghold.

A Wizard who is within 3" of the tower at the start of the Magic phase is assumed to ransack the tower's library in search of additional spells – they gain the Loremaster special rule for that phase. If more than one Wizard is within 3", randomly choose which one has control of the tower at the start of each Magic phase (no room can hold two wizardly egos in search of knowledge).

Choosing Your Army(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

So you've read through the rules, and now you're itching to start putting your generalship to the test. It's time to build an army.

Army Books(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

Each of the races or realms in Warhammer has its own Warhammer Armies book.

In addition to being crammed full of history, information and inspiring painting guides, along with all the rules and characteristic profiles for the army in question, each Warhammer Armies book also contains an army list that you can use to forge your miniatures into an army.

Points Value(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

Every model in Warhammer has been assigned a points value, given in the relevant army list. Points values reflect a model's worth within its army.

The higher a warrior's points value, the better that warrior will be – it might be stronger, tougher, faster, have higher leadership, wear better armour, and so on.

A humble Empire Spearman is a fairly average soldier, costing around 5 points, whilst a mighty Dragon costs in the realm of 300. Most warriors have a basic cost that increases as you upgrade their equipment and abilities, giving you a wide range of options that you can choose to spend your points on.

By adding together all the points costs of the warriors you have selected you can find out the points value of your army. Knowing the points value of your models is important, as it gives you a handy way of reckoning your army's effectiveness. A horde of two hundred Goblins can be just as mighty a force as a score of heavily armoured Knights – something not necessarily apparent from looking at the models themselves. Most games of Warhammer take place between armies of an equal points value.

Size of Game(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

To play a game of Warhammer, you and your opponent will need to decide the size of battle to fight - the larger the game you want to play, the larger the total points values of your armies. The total points value determines the maximum points you can spend on your army.

For example, you may decide to play a 3,000-point game, in which case the total points value of all models in each players' army must come to 3,000 points or less. Normally, this will mean that the armies will actually be a shade less than 3,000 points, as it's quite hard to spend every last point.

Quite what that value is will depend upon how long you want the game to take. At 2,000 to 3,000 points per side you'll have enough models for a battle, yet small enough to be over in the space of an evening. On the other hand, many an entertaining game has been played at 1,000 points, or even lower. Such battles normally take around an hour - perfect for a smaller warband-sized games, or 'practice' battles where you can try out new units and strategies. Larger games take proportionately longer (and take up a lot more space) with games of 4,000 points or more providing enough miniature carnage to occupy a goodly portion of a day.

The Army List(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

With the points total agreed, players need to pick their forces using the army list in the relevant Warhammer Armies book, and the system presented here.

Unless both players agree to show their army lists to each other before the battle starts, things like Magic Items, hidden units and the like are not disclosed until they are used or appear on the battlefield. Other things that would appear visible on the model such as equipment or specific unit upgrades must be disclosed upon deployment.

Always make sure to make it clear to your opponent what unit is which, and what equipment they have if necessary. Note down what additional Magic Items and equipment each unit might have, along with chosen spells other upgrades and where any hidden units might be deployed so this is not forgotten during the battle.

The General(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

An army must always include at least one Lord or Hero Character to be its General.

Every army must have a General to lead it into battle. The General represents you – they issue the orders that lead to the moves, shots, spells and attacks that your troops make.

If your army includes both Lords and Heroes, you must choose a Lord to be the army's General.

Minimum Units(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

An army must always include at least one Core, Special or Rare unit per 500 points played in addition to any Lords and Heroes.

An army just isn't an army unless it has plenty of warriors in its ranks. An army must contain at least one Core, Special or Rare unit for every 500 points played. So, at 750 points you need two units, at 1250 points you need three units, at 2500 points you need 5 units and so on.

Points LevelUnits Needed
0-5001
501-10002
1001-15003
1501-20004
2001-25005
Each +500+1

Unit Categories(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

Each army list divides the forces available into several categories. In a standard game, players are limited as to how many of their points can be spent from any particular category.

Core Units(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

You must spend a minimum of 25% of your points on Core units.

Core units are the heart of your army, the iconic troops who make up the bulk of every warband and warhost. Unlike other types of units, there is no maximum to the proportion of your points that you can spend on Core units.

For every Core unit with the Expendable special rule in your army, you are required to include at least one other Core Unit without the Expendable rule.

Special Units(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

You can spend up to 50% of your points on Special units.

Special units are invariably elite troops, capable of anchoring a battleline of lesser warriors, or performing great deeds in their own right.

Rare Units(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

You can spend up to 25% of your points on Rare units.

Rare units are the most unusual warriors in your army, mighty monsters, weird war machines and elite soldiers of unsurpassed skill. Rare units are often fantastically powerful, but often require a canny general to get the most from them.

Lords and Heroes(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

You can spend up to 25% of your points on Lords and/or 35% on Heroes, but no more than 35% in total over both categories.

Lords are the most powerful characters in your army, individuals possessed of fearsome martial or magical might. Heroes are lesser characters, not as intrinsically deadly as Lords, but still worth a score of ordinary warriors.

Wizards and Spell Lores(Main Rulebook, p. 131)

Some Lords and Heroes are Wizards, and have access to one or more spell lores.

Although you won't choose the spells that your Wizards know until you start to play your game you do need to make a note in your army roster of which spell lore each of your Wizards will use. The spells themselves are chosen as you deploy your Wizard.

Special Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 132)

The Warhammer Army books each include the rules for several Special Characters within their pages. They are famous, named war leaders and mighty mages, tales of whose legendary (or nefarious) deeds have travelled far and wide, such as the Emperor Karl Franz, Grom the Paunch of Misty Mountain, the infamous Vampire Lord Vlad von Carstein and many more besides.

Special Characters are exceptional individuals but, more importantly for our army selection purposes, they are unique – each can be included in an army only once.

Limited Choices(Main Rulebook, p. 132)

Some units are incredibly rare to the point where there is a set limit on the number of them you can include in your army. Where this is the case, they will be listed as something like 0-1 or 0-2 etc. This means you may at most have a number of these units in your army equal to the number given in the army list, unless specified.

Duplicate Choices(Main Rulebook, p. 132)

To further represent the scarce nature of Special and Rare choices there is a limit on how many duplicates of each unit you can include in your army. Remember, this limit applies only to duplicate Special or Rare unit choices, not to the total number of Special and Rare units overall. Note that this limit applies to the basic unit type and isn't dependent on the size of the unit or optional wargear. If a character has a Monster, Chariot, Shrine or War Machine mount that is available as a Special or Rare choice, then these will also count towards the limit of duplicate choices.

Points Level

Special Units

Rare Units

0-999

1

1

1000-1999

2

1

2000-2999

3

1

3000-3999

4

2

4000-4999

5

3

Each +1000

+1

+1

Example: if you play a 2500 points game; you may choose three of the same special unit in your army, but only one of each rare unit. At 3000 points, you may choose up to four of the same special unit, and two of the same rare unit.

Allied Armies(Main Rulebook, p. 133)

Warhammer is normally a clash between two mighty armies, striving for dominance upon their chosen battlefield, but this doesn't mean that it is a game solely for two players. By combining several players' armies into alliances, it's possible for any number of players to join the battle. Games involving allies will often trigger all sort of bizarre alliances, depending on the armies available to the players. You may wish to invent a narrative to explain the reasons behind the alliance, or simply decide not to worry about it and get stuck in the game. It's entirely up to you.

To forge your alliances, split the players into two teams. The teams don't need to have the same number of players, but if you're playing a game that uses points values it's best to give a little thought to the relative sizes of the players' collections when assigning teams, so that you can be happy that the balance of the game is as you wish it to be. The players can now pick their armies and begin to play.

Alternatively, if both players agree, you could choose to pick your force from two different armies. Ideally this should be done by both sides so that each player is given an equal chance to build an allied force.

Regardless of the number of players, each army must have their own General and Battle Standard Bearer.

Alliance and Alignment(Main Rulebook, p. 133)

Not all armies make natural allies – the Warhammer world's history of blood and battle (to say nothing of deep-held grudges, rampaging nihilists and incompatible worldviews) ensures that some army combinations will make for stronger alliances than others. To work out how harmonious an alliance between two or more different armies is likely to be, we first need to discuss the alignment of the Warhammer world's armies the age-old division between Order and Destruction.

The Forces of Order(Main Rulebook, p. 133)

The armies of the Forces of Order are considered to have the same broad goals as one another (though the details may be different). Essentially, they are builders, not destroyers. The Forces of Order want prosperity and peace for their peoples, to build (or rebuild) their realms. It should be borne in mind, however, that 'peace' is a relative term. The Forces of Order are not a united front, and spend much of their time pursuing border wars and settling matters of diplomatic insult with one another as they do battling the Forces of Destruction. Nonetheless, when dire times are loose upon the world, the Forces of Order inevitably set aside their differences to fend off the larger threat.

The Forces of Order are:

  • Albion

  • Amazons

  • Bretonnia

  • Cathay

  • Dwarfs

  • The Empire

  • Estalia

  • Halflings

  • High Elves

  • Kingdoms of Ind

  • Kislev

  • Lizardmen

  • Nippon

  • Wood Elves

The Forces of Destruction(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

The Forces of Destruction seek only to topple civilisation, to shatter the shining cities of the High Elves, burn the towns of the Empire and despoil the Dwarf holds. Where the Forces of Destruction march, they leave only carnage and sorrow in their wake. This should not be taken to mean that the Forces of Destruction are any more a unified alliance than the Forces of Order.

They are just as likely to battle amongst themselves as with a common foe, whether in appeasement of an unholy god, to further some despicable scheme or simply because their boiling blood lusts for constant battle.

The Forces of Destruction are:

  • Beastmen

  • Chaos Dwarfs

  • Daemons of Chaos

  • Dark Elves

  • Orcs & Goblins

  • Skaven

  • Vampire Counts

  • Warriors of Chaos

  • Zombie Pirates of the Vampire Coast

Non-Aligned Forces(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

All the realms and races we have discussed so far have been fairly easy to categorise. Politicking and backstabbing aside, each race presents a united front – their armies march either in civilisation's defence or to its destruction. There are, however, a handful of races whose alignment is not so easily judged. Such armies can march to war in service to the goals of either Order or Destruction.

The Non-Aligned Forces are:

  • Araby

  • Dogs of War

  • Hobgoblins

  • Norse

  • Ogre Kingdoms

  • Pirates of Sartosa

  • Tomb Kings

Bound by Blood(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

Units chosen from the same faction (that is, if they are from the same Warhammer Armies book or Expansion to the same Warhammer Armies book) are considered to be Bound by Blood, and are treated as 'friendly units' from all points of view.

This means that, to give some examples, Bound by Blood units:

  • Can be joined by allied characters,

  • Can use an allied General's Inspiring Presence rule.

  • Can use an allied battle standard's Hold Your Ground! rule.

  • Cause Panic tests in allies when they are destroyed, flee through allies, and so on.

  • Are counted as being 'friendly' units from the point of view of targeting spells, abilities and so on. E.g. they can be targeted by augment spells, but not hex, direct damage or magic missile spells, and so on.

Trusted Allies(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

Units from different armies, but which share the same alignment (i.e. either Order or Destruction – non-aligned units are always treated as being suspicious allies, as detailed later) are considered to be 'trusted' allies when they fight in an alliance. They are battling towards the same goal (or one so similar as makes no difference) and this common cause is likely reinforced by centuries-old oaths and the weight of a shared history.

Trusted Allies follow the rules for Bound by Blood except that they:

  • Cannot be joined by allied characters.

  • Cannot use an allied General's Inspiring Presence rule.

  • Cannot use an allied battle standard's Hold Your Ground! rule.

Suspicious Allies(Main Rulebook, p. 135)

Units from the non-aligned forces are always considered to be suspicious allies – one can never entirely rely upon them. That's not to say either party necessarily has any reason not to trust the other – they just can't quite bring themselves to do so. This is true even in an alliance between two such armies – it's quite easy to imagine two Tomb Kings uniting to fight against an invader, with each never quite taking their eye off of the other even in the midst of battle.

Suspicious Allies work exactly like Trusted Allies, except that they:

  • Are not counted as 'friendly' units from the point of view of targeting spells or other special rules.

Desperate Allies(Main Rulebook, p. 135)

Order and Destruction only find common cause in the most desperate of circumstances. Units from the Forces of Order always treat units from the Forces of Destruction as being desperate allies, and vice versa.

Desperate Allies work exactly like Suspicious Allies, except that they:

  • Have to take Dangerous Terrain tests when fleeing through allies.

  • Are counted as 'enemy' units from the point of view of targeting spells or special rules.

  • Are treated as Expendable by their allies.

Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 135)

If the alliance contains only Trusted or Suspicious Allies, power and dispel dice generated by the Winds of Magic can be split between the allied armies as the controlling players wish, but this must be done before any spellcasting is attempted. Dice generated by channelling must only be used by the channelling Wizard's army, as must any dice generated by magic items, special abilities and so on.

If the alliance contains one or more Desperate Allies, the power and dispel dice generated by the Winds of Magic must be split as equally as possible between the various allied armies as long as both of them contains at least one Wizard. If the dice cannot be split equally, roll off to allocate any spare dice. Dice generated by channelling must only be used by the channelling Wizard's army, as must any dice generated by magic items, special abilities and so on. Note that Wizards are not permitted to dispel an enemy spell that targets only desperate allies.

Fragile Alliances(Main Rulebook, p. 135)

Some races, specifically Skaven, Dark Elves or Hobgoblins, are so untrustworthy that not even their own kin can trust them for long. Worse, their manipulative presence tends to sour relations between other allied parties. An alliance that includes Skaven, Dark Elves or Hobgoblins is automatically a fragile alliance.

All relations in a fragile alliance start out normally, according to the various alignments. However, each player in a fragile alliance must roll a D6 at the start of their turn – on a roll of 1-3, all of that player's alliances immediately become one step worse for the rest of the game (unless they're already desperate allies).

Victory Conditions(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Each scenario has its own Victory Conditions by which players can judge who has won.

What's in a Unit?(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

When we are talking about Victory Points scored for a unit, this includes the unit's basic cost as well as any upgrades bought for it like Command Group models, weapon/armour upgrades, mounts and Magic Items.

Some army books allow certain units to buy additional models for them that operates like their own unit, such as Night Goblin Fanatics or Skaven Weapon Teams. In this case, Victory Points are rewarded separately for these additional models and the main unit they were bought with.

Victory Points(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Many pitched battles use victory points as convenient shorthand for calculating the winner of a battle. In order to win you must either wipe the opposing army out completely, or score at least 100 victory points more than your opponent – if you score at least twice as many victory points as your opponent, then you have achieved a crushing victory! Any other result is a draw.

Victory points are, first and foremost, awarded for destroying enemy units, but other pivotal actions, such as slaying the enemy General, or capturing their standards are also assigned victory point values, to represent their effect on the battle's outcome. Essentially, anything that enheartens your army or demoralises your opponent's curs is worth victory points. At the end of the game, you are awarded victory points for the following achievements:

Decimated(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Each enemy unit that has half or less of their starting Unit Strength left at the end of the battle is worth a number of victory points equal to 50% of the number of points it cost to include the unit in the army.

Broken(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Each enemy unit that has more than half of their starting Unit Strength left and that is fleeing but is still on the table at the end of the battle is worth a number of victory points equal to 50% of the number of points it cost to include the unit in the army.

Shattered(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Each enemy unit that has half or less of their starting Unit Strength left and that is also fleeing but is still on the table at the end of the battle is worth a number of victory points equal to 75% of the number of points it cost to include the unit in the army.

Dead or Fled(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Each enemy unit that has been destroyed or has fled off the table is worth a number of victory points equal to 100% of the number of points it cost to include the unit in the army.

Wounded(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Each character or monster that has half or less of their starting number wounds remaining at the end of the battle is worth a number of victory points equal to 50% of the number of points it cost to include the unit in the army.

The King is Dead(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

If the enemy General is slain or has fled the table, you score an additional 100 victory points.

Seized Standards(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

You score an additional 25 victory points for every enemy standard bearer that was removed as a result of a successful pursuit move or slain in combat. If the enemy Battle Standard Bearer is slain under these circumstances, their death instead scores an additional 100 victory points.

Note that if a standard bearer of any kind is killed by a shooting attack, spell or anything else outside of close combat, these extra victory points are not scored (the enemy is assumed to whisk their prized banner away before your troops can get hold of it).

Scenario Special Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

Some scenarios use unique special rules that confer extra abilities, restrictions or effects onto your games. We group all such elements into the Scenario Special Rules section, where they can be fully explained.

Victory Points Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

In order to calculate the result, sum up the final Victory Points of both players and subtract the lower result from the higher. Then divide the difference with the size of the battle itself, and consult the chart below to determine the result of the battle.

Points Difference (%)Result
0-9Draw
10-24Marginal Victory
25-49Solid Victory
50+Massacre!

For example, in a 2500 points battle where Player 1 scores 1000 Victory Points vs Player 2's 1500 Victory Points gives a difference of 500 points. Dividing 2500 with 500 gives a result of 0.2 (20%), and thus Player 2 has won a Marginal Victory!

If a player concedes, the opponent automatically scores a 'Massacre!' Of course, players are free to negotiate more honourable surrendering terms if they feel so inclined...

Scenarios(Main Rulebook, p. 137)

So you've read the rules, assembled your glorious army and are even now champing at the bit to unleash a smiting upon your opponent! That being the case, it's time to set up and play a Warhammer battle.

Two armies, met by chance or purpose, must now battle for supremacy! Who knows what grim deeds have brought them to this bloody ground? Whether they fight for glory, vengeance, justice or the act of slaughter itself matters not. When the sun rises the carnage will begin, and only the elimination of the foe or the fall of night will bring it to an end.

Of course, not all battles are the same - quite the opposite in fact – so we vary certain details, such as deployment and how the winner is determined. Doing this allows us to reflect the particular situation of the clash – classic battlelines, a fight in a mountain pass, the defence of a watchtower, and so on – creating a 'scenario' for the game.

The scenarios given on the following few pages represent pitched battles, where the armies are of roughly the same size and the situation gives neither side a particular advantage. They are each designed to give both sides an equal chance of winning, and have few, if any, scenario special rules.

There are two ways that you can choose which pitched battle to use. The first is to pick randomly; by rolling on the Pitched battle table shown below.

D6

Pitched Battle

1

Battleline

2

Dawn Attack

3

Battle for the Pass

4

Blood and Glory

5

Meeting Engagement

6

The Watchtower

The second method is to discuss the matter with your opponent and agree which battle you both want to fight. This gives the maximum amount of choice and ensures that you don't end up in a scenario that neither of you wants to play.

Each pitched battle contains the information you need to get set up and playing, broken down into the following categories:

  • The Armies (this will normally be two armies of equal points value)

  • The Battlefield

  • Deployment

  • First Turn

  • Game Length, Victory Conditions

  • Scenario Special Rules

This format governs all Warhammer scenarios – not just the ones found in this volume.

Battleline(Main Rulebook, p. 138)

In the Warhammer world, disputes are settled upon the bloody field of battle. An abortive raid by an unruly warlord, a dispute over a piece of territory, or any number of a perceived slights can lead to two nations going to war. The conflict will be settled in a battle between the rival armies, with the spoils going to the victor, and death and dishonour to the loser.

The Armies

Each player chooses their force using the army list from a Warhammer Armies book, to an equal points value agreed before the game.

The Battlefield

Set up terrain as described under the Fighting a Battle chapter.

Deployment

Roll off to see which player picks the half of the table they will deploy in. The opponent will deploy in the other half.

Players then take it in turn to place units on the table, using the alternating units method of deployment. Units may be placed anywhere in their deployment zone that is more than 12" from the centre line.

First Turn

Roll off after deployment to see which player takes the first turn. The player that finished deploying their army first adds +1 to their roll as per the normal rules.

Game Length

The battle will last for six game turns, or until a time limit agreed by the players is reached, whichever comes first.

Victory Conditions

Use victory points to determine the winner of the battle.

Scenario Special Rules

None.

Dawn Attack(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

When two armies first encounter each other they will usually make camp and wait until the next day before taking to the field of battle. As the first rays of light sweep the horizon the two sides will march forth, advancing through the gloom towards the battle positions their generals have decided upon. Sometimes units will become confused and lost, forcing their commander to modify their plan of battle.

The Armies

Each player chooses their force using the army list from a Warhammer Armies book, to an equal points value agreed before the game.

The Battlefield

Set up terrain as described under the Fighting a Battle chapter.

Deployment

Roll off to see which player picks the half of the table they will deploy in. The opponent will deploy in the other half.

The player that won the roll off must deploy their entire army first. Before deploying each unit, roll a dice and refer to the Deployment table to see where the unit must deploy – this represents them groggily making their way to the battlefield in the darkness just before dawn breaks. Units with the Scouts special rule do not roll on the table, and deploy using their own special rules after normal deployment is complete. Characters may either deploy on their own, rolling on the table like any other unit, or deploy as part of a unit they are allowed to join (state that the character will join the unit before rolling to see where the unit and character will deploy).

Once the first player has deployed, their opponent must do likewise, rolling for each unit as described above.

D6

Result

1

Left Flank. The entire unit must be placed in the player's half, more than 12" from the centre line, and within 18" of the narrow table edge on the player's left.

2

Right Flank. The entire unit must be placed in the player's half, more than 12" from the centre line, and within 18" of the narrow table edge on the player's right.

3-5

Centre. The entire unit must be placed in the player's half, more than 12" from the centre line, and more than 18" from either narrow table edge.

6

Choose. The entire unit must be placed in the player's half, anywhere more than 12" from the centre line.

First Turn

After deployment, the player that set up second rolls a dice. On a roll of 6 they can choose who has the first turn. On a roll of 1-5 the player that set up first chooses who has the first turn.

Game Length

The battle will last for six game turns, or until a time limit agreed by the players is reached, whichever comes first.

Victory Conditions

Use victory points to determine the winner of the battle.

Scenario Special Rules

None.

Battle for the Pass(Main Rulebook, p. 140)

Many of the kingdoms of the Warhammer world are separated by towering mountain ranges that can only be crossed at the occasional mountain pass. These narrow defiles are of vital strategic importance, and present a defender with the perfect location to confront an invading army.

The Armies

Each player chooses their force using the army list from a Warhammer Armies book, to an equal points value agreed before the game.

The Battlefield

Set up terrain as described under the Fighting a Battle chapter. It's worth keeping in mind when setting up the terrain that the battle will be fought down the length of the table, in a narrow pass with impassable mountains just off each of the long table edges.

Deployment

Roll off to see which player picks the half of the table they want to deploy in. The opponent deploys in the other half. Note that in this pitched battle the game is fought down the length of the table rather than across its width, as shown on the deployment map below.

Units may be placed anywhere in their half that is more than 12" from the centre line.

Players take it in turn to place units on the table, using the alternating unit method of deployment.

First Turn

Roll off after deployment to see which player receives the first turn. The player that finished deploying their army first adds +1 to their roll as per the normal rules.

Game Length

The battle will last for six game turns, or until a time limit agreed by the players is reached, whichever comes first.

Victory Conditions

Use victory points to determine the winner of the battle.

Scenario Special Rules

Bottleneck: The battle is being fought in a narrow pass enclosed by high cliffs. Because of this, the long table edges count as impassable terrain. Following the normal rules, fleeing units can force a way through the impassable terrain and disappear from the table. Other units (including reinforcements) may not enter or leave via a long table edge unless they are Ethereal or a Flyer. This means that pursuing or overrunning units, other than Ethereals and Flyers, must stop 1" away from the long table edges.

Blood and Glory(Main Rulebook, p. 141)

The battles fought in the Warhammer world are bloody affairs. Eventually, worn down by destruction, one of the battlelines will break and flee, leaving their opponents in control of the field.

The Armies

Each player chooses their force using the army list from a Warhammer Armies book, to an equal points value agreed before the game.

The Battlefield

Set up terrain as described under the Fighting a Battle chapter.

Deployment

Roll off to see which player chooses the half of the table they will deploy in. The opponent will deploy in the other half. Players then take it in turns to place units on the table, using the alternating units method of deployment.

Units may be placed anywhere in their half of the table that is more than 9" from the centre line, and more than 9" away from either narrow table edge.

First Turn

Roll off after deployment to see which player receives the first turn. The player that finished deploying their army first adds +1 to their roll as per the normal rules.

Game Length

The game ends at the end of the 6th game turn or as soon as an army breaks. An army immediately breaks when its Fortitude is equal to or less than its Breaking Point (see below).

Victory Conditions

The first army to break the enemy wins the battle (see above). If neither army has broken by the end of the game, or if both were to break simultaneously, use victory points to determine the winner.

Scenario Special Rules

Breaking Point: An army's breaking point is equal to one for every thousand points in the army, rounding any fractions up. So, an army of up to 1,000 points has a breaking point of one, an army worth 1,001 to 2,000 points has a breaking point of two, etc.

Fortitude: Any army's fortitude is equal to the current number of standards in the army (including the battle standard), plus two for the General. Fleeing units and units that are only temporarily off-table still count.

For example, a 2,000 point army (breaking point 2) has three unit standards, a battle standard, and a General, giving it a starting fortitude of six (3 + 1 + 2=6). It would break as soon as its fortitude was reduced to two.

Meeting Engagement(Main Rulebook, p. 142)

It is not uncommon for two armies to come across each other and immediately deploy straight from column of march. More often than not, the fighting starts while elements of the army are still marching towards the battlefield. In such a battle there is little time for careful consideration or planning.

The Armies

Each player chooses their force using the army list from a Warhammer Armies book, to an equal points value agreed before the game.

The Battlefield

Set up terrain as described under the Fighting a Battle chapter.

Deployment

In this scenario the table is divided into two halves from corner to corner, as shown on the deployment map. The players roll off and the winner chooses the two opposite corners to be used and which half of the table each player will deploy in.

The player that won the roll-off must deploy their entire army first. Before deploying the army, roll a dice for each separate unit, including each individual character and war machine. On a roll of 1 the unit must be held back as reserves (see the special rules for Reserves on the right). After all units have been rolled for, those that are not reserves can be deployed in their side's deployment zone, anywhere that is more than 6" away from the centre line.

Once the first player had deployed, their opponent does likewise, in exactly the same manner.

First Turn

After deployment, the player that set up second rolls a dice. On a roll of 6 they can choose who has the first turn. On a roll of 1-5 the player that set up first chooses who has the first turn.

Game Length

The battle will last for six game turns, or until a time limit agreed by the players is reached, whichever comes first.

Victory Conditions

Use victory points to determine the winner of the battle.

Scenario Special Rules

Reserves: Reserves are not deployed at the start of the battle. Instead they can enter play on any turn of their player's choosing, using the reinforcements rules. They may enter at any point on the long table edge of their deployment zone.

The Watchtower(Main Rulebook, p. 143)

A wise warlord will protect their territory by building watchtowers at strategic locations. These fortified towers will have a small garrison, whose duty is to watch out for enemy incursions into their ruler's territory. They are expected to hold out long enough for the rest of the army to arrive and bring the enemy to battle.

The Armies

Each player chooses their force using the army list from a Warhammer Armies book, to an equal points value agreed before the game.

The Battlefield

Set up the watchtower as described below, and then set up any remaining terrain using the method described under the Fighting a Battle chapter. The watchtower counts as the first of the terrain pieces that must be set up.

The Watchtower

A building must be set up at the centre of the table. Any building model can be used, but a Warhammer Watchtower is ideal. If you don't have a building model, use any other terrain feature of your choice.

Deployment

Roll off to see who controls the watchtower at the start of the battle. The player that controls the tower may deploy a single Core infantry unit of no more than 20 models in the tower if they wish to do so. The unit is not allowed to voluntarily leave the tower until after the first game turn of the battle has been completed.

The opposing player then picks the half of the table they will deploy in. Players then take it in turn to place units on the table, starting with the player that doesn't control the watchtower, using the alternating units method of deployment. Units may be placed anywhere in their half that is more than 12" from the centre line.

First Turn

The player that does not control the watchtower receives the first turn.

Game Length

Roll a D6 at the end of each game turn, starting with the end of game turn 4. Add the turn number to the dice roll. If the score is 10 or more, then the battle ends immediately. If the total is less than 10 then the battle continues for at least one more game turn.

Victory Conditions

At the end of the battle, the side that controls the watchtower is the winner. The watchtower is controlled by calculating the amount of Unit Strength of all units within 6" of it that are not fleeing on each side. Any unit garrisoning Watchtower counts as double their Unit Strength (to a maximum of +20) for this purpose. The side with the highest Unit Strength is the winner. In the unlikely event that neither player can claim to control the watchtower, use victory points to determine the winner of the battle.

Scenario Special Rules

None.

The Lores of Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 144)

Wizards are a formidable force on the battlefield, able to wreak incredible destruction, weaken or strengthen other warriors, or summon terrible beasts to fight at their side.

The Lores of Magic are lists from which Wizards choose their spells. Different Wizards have access to different Lores of Magic. The eight most common lores are presented here.

As has already been hinted at, the possible applications of magic are many and varied, leading to a potentially vast array of spells to choose from. Fortunately for our gaming convenience (to say nothing of our already tenuous sanity) very few Wizards in the Warhammer world have the gumption to harness the full spectrum of magic, and instead concentrate on mastering one or more magical disciplines, or lores.

There are many magical lores. Most represent fragments of 'pure' magic as practiced by the High Elves. Each lore has a particular character, which is reflected by each spell within it. The Lore of Metal, for example, is grounded in alchemy, and its spells therefore act through the transmutation of one substance into another.

The eight most common lores, echoing the eight disciplines that the High Elves once taught to men, are collated at the back of this book. Almost all races can use one or more of these lores, depending on the character of said race, and its magical methods. Many races also have access to their own, unique spell lores, such as the fearsomely destructive Waaagh! magic of the Orcs and Goblins. Where this is the case, the relevant Warhammer Armies book will contain the necessary spell list(s).

Each lore presented on the following pages is but a splinter of the pure magic practiced by the High Elves; one focused shard of magical energy, with a particular trait all of its own. The Lore of Fire, for example, is chiefly a repository of raging and destructive spells, whilst the Lore of Life specialises in spells of protection and healing. Each of the eight lores harnesses energy from one of the divisions in the Winds of Magic. Some kinds of energy are denser than others and sink low to permeate the ground, others are more rarefied, billowing like high clouds through the upper atmosphere.

Your choice of lores will depend on how you want to use your Wizards, and also upon how many you plan to field. Presented on the following pages are eight magical lores, the eight sorcerous traditions as taught by the High Elves to the Wizards of the Empire.

Although many of the Warhammer world's races practise their own magical traditions and thus have their own spell lores (as detailed in the relevant Warhammer Armies book), most also have some understanding of at least one of the eight lores described in this section.

The Lore of Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 145)

Bright magic, Immolation, Pyromancy

The Lore of Fire has its basis in powerful ranged attack spells, designed to wreak massive damage on your foes. If you see your Wizards as essentially 'magical artillery' then the Lore of Fire is probably the one for you.

All of the spells in the Lore of Fire are Flaming Attacks. In addition, if a direct damage or magic missile spell from the Lore of Fire is cast at a unit that has already been hit by a direct damage or magic missile spell from the Lore of Fire in the same Magic phase (even if the spell was cast by a different Wizard) the spell inflicts an additional D6 Hits on the unit.

Fireball is a magic missile with a range of 24" and causes D6 Strength 4 hits. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 36" and the number of hits to 2D6. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+. Alternatively, the Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48" and the number of hits to 3D6. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 17+.

Remains in play. Cascading Fire-Cloak is an augment spell with a range of 12". At the end of each Magic phase, any enemy unit in base contact with the target unit immediately suffers 2D6 Strength 4 hits. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 9+.

Flaming Sword of Rhuin is an augment spell with a range of 24". The target unit (except mounts) has a +1 bonus when rolling To Wound with all shooting and close combat attacks until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The target unit also counts as having both the Magical Attacks and Flaming Attacks special rules. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 10+.

The Burning Head is a direct damage spell. Extend a straight line, 18" in length, within the caster's front arc and directly away from their base. Each model in the way (determined using the line template) suffers a Strength 4 hit. A unit that suffers one or more casualties from the Burning Head must take a Panic test. The Wizard can choose to extend the Burning Head's 'bounce' to 36". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Piercing Bolts of Burning is a magic missile with a range of 24" and causes D3 Strength 4 hits for each rank (including incomplete ranks) in the target unit. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

Fulminating Flame Cage is a hex spell with a range of 24". The target unit immediately suffers D6 Strength 4 hits. In addition, if the target unit moves during the Movement phase, flees or pursues, every model in the unit suffers an immediate Strength 4 hit and the spell ends. If the unit does not move during the Movement phase, flees or pursues, Fulminating Flame Cage automatically ceases at the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Flame Storm is a direct damage spell. Place the small round template anywhere within 18" of the Wizard – it then moves D6" in a random direction determined by the scatter dice. All models touched by the template from its starting point to its end point suffer a Strength 4 hit. The Wizard can choose to create a larger conflagration, using the large template rather than the small template. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 26+ and the template moves 2D6" rather than D6".

The Lore of Metal(Main Rulebook, p. 146)

Gold Magic, Alchemy, Transmutancy

The Lore of Metal is based around the manipulation and transformation of metals. As you might expect, enemies that rely heavily on armour should beware the Lore of Metal, as its spells either ignore armour, or turn it against its wearer with horrendous consequences.

The casting value for a Lore of Metal spell is lowered by 1 if the majority of the models in the target unit have a close combat armour save of 4+ to 6+, or lowered by 2 to if the majority have a close combat armour save of 1+ to 3+ (excluding Natural Armour). Roll a D6 in case of a tie.

Searing Doom is a magic missile with a range of 24" and causes D6 hits with the Ignores Armour Saves and Flaming Attacks special rules. The To Wound score is equal to the unmodified close comabt armour save of the target (excluding Natural Armour). Models without an armour save cannot be wounded. The Wizard can choose to have the spell instead inflict 2D6 hits. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 20+.

Plague of Rust is a hex with a range of 24". The target's armour save (excluding Natural Armour) is lowered by one point for the rest of the game (e.g. a model with light armour and shield will only have a 6+ save). Plague of Rust can be repeatedly cast on the same target, reducing its armour save by a further -1 each time. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 9+.

Enchanted Blades of Aiban is an augment spell with a range of 24". Until the start of the caster's next Magic phase, the target unit (except mounts) gains +1 To Hit, Armour Piercing (1) and the Magical Attacks special rules with all shooting and close combat attacks. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 11+.

Glittering Robe is an augment spell with a range of 12". The target unit gains +2 to its armour save until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Gehenna's Golden Hounds is a direct damage spell with a range of 12". Choose a single enemy model within range – it suffers D6 Strength 5 hits (even a character in a unit, "Look Out, Sir!" cannot be used). The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Transmutation of Lead is a hex with a range of 24". The target suffers a -1 penalty to Hit in close combat and with missile weapons, -1 Initiative and -1 to its armour saves until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 14+.

Final Transmutation is a direct damage spell with a range of 18". Roll a D6 for every model in the target unit – on a 5+ they suffer a Wound using the Multiple Wounds (D3) and Ignores Armour Saves special rules as well as ignoring Regeneration.

In addition, any enemy unit within 12" of the target at the start of their following turn (including the target itself) must test for Stupidity in order to overcome the lure of the riches that have appeared in their vicinity. This does not apply to models with Immunity (Psychology), War Beasts, Monstrous Beasts or Monsters.

The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 36". If they do so, the casting value of the Final Transmutation is increased to 18+.

The Lore of Life(Main Rulebook, p. 147)

Jade Magic, Druid Lore, Animism

The Lore of Life unleashes the power of the natural world. It is primarily a defensive lore, with an array of spells that heal your troops and augment their resilience.

When a spell from the Lore of Life is successfully cast, the Wizard (or another friendly model within 12") instantly recovers a single Wound lost earlier in the battle.

Earth Blood is an augment spell which is cast on the Wizard itself and any unit they are with. The target unit gains the Regeneration (5+) special rule until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. Alternatively, the Wizard can choose to target one unit within 12". If they do so, the target gains Regeneration (6+) instead of Regeneration (5+).

Awakening of the Wood is a direct damage spell with a range of 18" and causes D6 Strength 4 hits. If the target is within 3" of a forest, the number of hits is increased to 2D6.

Flesh to Stone is an augment spell with a range of 24". The target unit has +2 to its Toughness value until the start of the caster's next Magic phase.

Remains in play. Throne of Vines is an augment spell cast upon the Wizard. Whilst the spell is in effect, every time the Wizard miscasts, roll a dice. On a 4+, the miscast is ignored. Furthermore, the Wizard's castings of the following spells have the additional benefits given below (it does not change the effects of spells that have already been cast):

  • Earth Blood grants +1 to the target's Regeneration save.

  • Awakening of the Wood instead Hits at Strength 5.

  • Flesh to Stone instead adds +3 Toughness.

  • Regrowth instead restores D6+1 Wounds worth of models.

  • Shield of Thorns instead Hits at Strength 4.

Remains in play. Shield of Thorns is an augment spell with a range of 24". At the end of each Magic phase, any enemy unit in base contact with the target suffers 2D6 Strength 3 hits.

Regrowth is an augment spell with a range of 24". The target unit instantly recovers D3+1 Wounds' worth of models slain earlier in the battle (Cavalry count as 2 models). The wounds in the unit are regained in a strict order. First any slain command groups models are resurrected in an order of your choosing, displacing rank-and-file models as required. Then rank-and-file models with multiple Wounds are healed to their starting value. Finally, any remaining wounds resurrect rank and file models (in the case of multiple wound rank and file models, the first resurrected models must be fully healed before another can be resurrected, and so on). These are added to the front or rear of the unit as you wish as long as the unit keeps a legal formation. Regrowth cannot take a unit beyond its starting size, and cannot be used to heal characters or their mounts. Any models that are resurrected retain any rules and/or bonuses the unit has gained or lost this turn. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value of Regrowth is increased to 11+.

The Dwellers Below is a direct damage spell with a range of 12". Every model in the target unit must pass a Strength test or suffer a Wound using the Multiple Wounds (D3) and Ignores Armour Saves special rules as well as ignoring Regeneration. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 22+.

The Lore of Beasts(Main Rulebook, p. 148)

Amber Magic, Totem-calling, Shapeshifting

The Lore of Beasts is dominated by augmentative spells that grant your models extra capabilities. It's best chosen if your army intends to win its battles in close combat, as a few timely spells from the Lore of Beasts can transform mediocre troops into fearsome battle winners.

If a spell from the Lore of Beasts is targeted on one or more units of war beasts, cavalry, monstrous beasts, monstrous cavalry, chariots, monsters, swarms or any unit from Warhammer: Beastmen, then the casting difficulty of the spell is reduced by 1.

Wyssan's Wildform is an augment spell with a range of 12". The target unit gains +1 Strength and +1 Toughness until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 14+.

The Flock of Doom is a magic missile with a range of 24" and causes 3D6 Strength 2 hits. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 8+.

Pann's Impenetrable Pelt is an augment spell that is cast upon the Wizard or another friendly character within 12". The target model gains +3 Toughness until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

The Amber Spear is a magic missile with a range of 24". It inflicts a single Strength 6 hit with the Multiple Wounds (D3) and Ignores Armour saves special rules that penetrates ranks in the same manner as a shot from a bolt thrower if the first model is slain – the Strength of the hit is reduced by 1 for each subsequent rank. The Wizard can attempt to call forth a larger, deadlier spear that inflicts a Strength 10 hit, causing Multiple Wounds (D6). If they do so, the casting value is increased to 15+.

The Curse of Anraheir is a hex with a range of 24". The target unit suffers a -1 penalty to its To Hit rolls (to both its shooting and close combat attacks) until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. In addition, the unit treats all terrain (other than open and impassable terrain) as dangerous terrain and will fail Dangerous Terrain tests on a 1 or 2, rather than a 1. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 11+.

The Savage Beast of Horros is an augment spell with a range of 12" and is cast on a friendly character, which can be the Wizard itself. The character (but not any mount) gains +3 Strength and +3 Attacks until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 14+.

The Transformation of Kadon is an augment spell can only be cast upon the Wizard, and only if they are on foot. Whilst the spell is in effect, the Wizard transmogrifies itself into a Monster (use a suitable model) with the following profile and special rules: Fly (7), Breath Weapon (Strength 4, Flaming Attacks).

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If the Wizard is in a unit, they can remain within the unit, even though they are now technically a Monster. If they cannot be placed because there is not enough room, the spell does not work. Whilst transformed, the Wizard cannot channel, cast or dispel spells, and all of their magic items and mundane equipment (armour, weapons, etc.) temporarily stop working. Any wounds suffered by the Wizard are not carried over between transformations. The Wizard can choose to end the spell at the start of any of their Magic Phases.

The Lore of Heavens(Main Rulebook, p. 149)

Celestial Magic, Astromancy, Divination

The Lore of Heavens manipulates the forces of the sky, harnessing destructive weather or drawing upon the predictive power of astrology to alter probabilities.

When a spell from the Lore of Heavens is successfully cast, roll a D6; on a 4+, the Wizard can re-roll one dice to either change the casting result or the number of Hits inflicted by a spell when casting further spells for the remainder of this Magic phase.

Iceshard Blizzard is a hex spell with a range of 24". The target suffers a -1 to their Weapon Skill, Ballistics Skill and Leadership until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. Shooting attacks that do not use Ballistic Skill must roll 4+ on a D6 before firing, or the shot(s) is lost. This is an Ice Attack. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 9+.

Harmonic Convergence is an augment spell with a range of 24". Until the start of the caster's next Magic phase, the target unit re-rolls all To Hit, To Wound and armour save rolls of 1. The caster can choose to have this spell target all friendly units within 12". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

Wind Blast is a magic missile with a range of 24". The target is 'pushed' 2D3" directly away from the caster (it does not change facing). If the target unit comes into contact with impassable terrain it stops 1" away and suffers D6 Strength 3 hits. If the target unit comes into contact with another unit it stops 1" away and both units suffer D6 Strength 3 hits. Targets that cannot move are not pushed back at all, but still suffer D6 Strength 3 hits. The caster can choose to summon a more powerful wind that pushes the target back 2D6", rather than 2D3". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 14+.

Curse of the Midnight Wind is a hex spell with a range of 24". The target must re-roll all 6's when rolling To Hit, To Wound and armour saves until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can instead choose to have this spell target all enemy units within 12". If they do so, the casting value is 20+.

Urannon's Thunderbolt is a magic missile with a range of 24" that causes D6 Strength 6 hits with the Lightning Attacks special rule. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

This spell is cast upon any fixed point on the tabletop. Place a suitable marker over the exact spot affected – a small coin is ideal for this. For as long as the spell lasts, the player rolls a D6 at the start of each player's following Magic phase. On a score of 1-3 nothing happens, but place another marker on the first. On the score of a 4-6 the comet strikes the spot. All units from either side that are within 2D6" are struck by the comet. Each unit struck by the comet takes 2D6 hits, +1 hit for each marker on the comet, at a Strength equal to 4 plus the number of markers on the comet. Once cast, the comet cannot be dispelled. The Wizard can choose to cast this spell so that the comet starts with two counters rather than one, and two counters are added each time the comet fails to land. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 24+.

Chain Lightning is a direct damage spell with a range of 24". Chain Lightning causes D6 Strength 6 hits with the Lightning Attacks special rule. Once the damage has been resolved, roll a D6; on a 3+, choose an enemy within 6" of the initial target – the lightning leaps to that unit, which suffers D6 Strength 6 hits. Keep rolling for further victims (each within 6" of the last target struck), until the roll is failed or there are no more viable targets (a unit can only be the target of Chain Lightning once per Magic phase).

The Lore of Light(Main Rulebook, p. 150)

White Wizardry, Soulkeeping, Guardian Magic

The Lore of Light can broadly be described as protective magic, granting defensive bonuses to your troops. It also contains a few 'exorcism' spells that can banish Undead and Daemonic creatures.

Before a Wizard attempts to cast a spell from the Lore of Light, they may choose to take a Leadership test using their own Leadership value. If passed, they add +1 to the casting result. If failed, they instead suffer -1 to the casting result.

Shem's Burning Gaze is a magic missile with a range of 24" and causes D6 Strength 4 hits (which count as Flaming Attacks). Against models with the Daemonic, Undead or Vampiric special rules, this is increased to 2D6 Hits. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48" and increase the Strength from 4 to 6. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

Pha's Protection is an augment spell with a range of 24". All attacks against the target unit (shooting or close combat) suffer a -1 penalty To Hit until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. Shooting attacks that do not use Ballistic Skill must roll 4+ on a D6 before firing, or the shot(s) is lost. The Wizard can choose to have their spell target all friendly units within 12". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

The Speed of Light is an augment spell with a range of 24". The target unit gains the Always Strikes First special rule until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to instead have their spell target all friendly units within 12". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 16+.

Light of Battle is an augment spell with a range of 12". If fleeing, the target unit rallies immediately. Additionally, the target unit will pass all Leadership tests (regardless of modifiers) until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Net of Amyntok is a hex with a range of 24". The target unit must pass a Strength test every time it moves in the Movement phase, shoots or casts spells until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. If the test is passed, the target acts normally. If the test is failed, the unit is unable to perform the desired action, remaining in place and taking D6 Strength 4 hits from the net's barbs of light. Against models with the Daemonic, Undead or Vampiric special rules, this is increased to 2D6 Hits. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

Banishment is a magic missile with a range of 24" – the target suffers 2D6 hits. Against models with the Daemonic, Undead or Vampiric special rules, this is increased to 3D6 Hits. The Strength of the hits is equal to 4 plus the number of Wizards that know spells from the Lore of Light within 12" of the caster (not counting the caster themself). Successful Ward Saves taken against Banishment must be re-rolled. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

Birona's Timewarp is an augment spell with a range of 18". The target unit's Movement is doubled, its Initiative is raised to 10, and its Attacks is increased by 1 until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 36". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 17+.

The Lore of Shadow(Main Rulebook, p. 151)

Grey Magic, Legerdemain, Phantasmancy

The Lore of Shadow is a force of illusion and deception, relying chiefly on phantasmal attacks to sap the enemy's will (or ability) to fight.

After a spell from the Lore of Shadow is successfully cast and resolved, the casting Wizard can choose to immediately make a move (but not march) using the Fly (10) special rule as if it were the Remaining Moves sub-phase, even if they are in close combat.

Melkoth's Mystifying Miasma is a hex with a range of 24". The target unit's Weapon Skill, Ballistic Skill, Initiative or Movement (you choose which) is reduced by D3 (to a minimum of 1) until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to cast a more powerful version of this spell that instead reduces all four characteristics (don't roll a D3 for each – make one roll and apply it to all four characteristics). If they do so, the casting value of Melkoth's Mystifying Miasma is increased to 10+.

Steed of Shadows is an augment spell that can be cast on Infantry character (including the Wizard) within 12". The target immediately makes a move using the Fly (10) special rule as if it were the Remaining Moves sub-phase. In addition, the target will count as being Ethereal for the purpose of resolving missile attacks against it until the start of the caster's next Magic phase.

Remains in play. The Enfeebling Foe is a hex spell with a range of 18". All models in the target unit have their Strength reduced by D3 (to a minimum of 1) for the duration of the spell. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 36". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Remains in play. The Withering is a hex with a range of 18". All models in the target unit have their Toughness reduced by D3 (to a minimum of 1) for the duration of the spell. The Wizard can extend the range of this spell to 36". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 16+.

The Penumbral Pendulum is a direct damage spell. Extend a straight line, 24" in length, directly away from the caster. Each model in the way (determined using the line template) must pass an Initiative test or suffer a Strength 10 hit causing Multiple Wounds (D3). The Wizard can choose to extend the Penumbral Pendulum's range to 48". If they do so, the casting value of the spell is increased to 18+.

Pit of Shades is a direct damage spell. Place the small round template anywhere within 24" – it then scatters D6". All models underneath the template must pass an Initiative test or suffer a Wound using the Multiple Wounds (D3) and Ignores Armour Saves special rules as well as ignoring Regeneration. The Wizard can choose to create a larger portal, using the large template rather than the small template. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 17+, the template scatters 2D6" rather than D6", and the spell causes Multiple Wounds (D6).

Okkam's Mindrazor is an augment spell with a range of 18". Until the start of the caster's next Magic phase, the target unit (except mounts) use their Leadership instead of Strength when rolling To Wound with all close combat attacks (any Strength bonuses from weapons are ignored). Armour saves are taken and modified by the Attack's actual Strength value. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 36". If they do so, the casting value of Okkam's Mindrazor is increased to 21+.

The Lore of Death(Main Rulebook, p. 152)

Amethyst Magic, Necromancy, Soul-Stealing

The Lore of Death has a formidable battery of short-ranged damage spells that specialise in zapping enemy characters. Death magic is more destructive even than Fire magic, but the Wizard has to be pretty close to their foe (perhaps dangerously close) to use the Lore of Death to its full, fearsome potential.

When a Lore of Death spell is resolved, roll a D6 for each unsaved wound caused by the spell (models removed by the Purple Sun of Xereus each add a number of dice equal to their Wounds characteristic). For each 6 rolled on these additional dice, the Wizard immediately adds a dice to their army's power pool.

Spirit Leech is a direct damage spell with a range of 12" that targets a single enemy model (even a character in a unit). Both caster and target roll a D6 and add their respective Leadership values. For every point the caster wins by, the target suffers a Wound which Ignores Armour saves. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 11+.

Aspect of the Dreadknight is an augment spell with a range of 24". The target unit gains the Fear special rule until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. If they already cause Fear, they now cause Terror. The Wizard can choose to make the target even more horrifying if they wish, and cause Terror, rather than Fear. If they do so, the casting value is increased to 8+.

The Caress of Laniph is a direct damage spell with a range of 12" that targets a single enemy model (even a character in a unit). If successfully cast, the target suffers a number of hits equal to 2D6 minus their own Strength. Hits from the Caress of Laniph cause a Wound on a roll of 4+ which Ignores Armour saves. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 24". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 10+.

Soulblight is a hex spell with a range of 18". The target has -1 Strength and -1 Toughness (to a minimum of 1) until the start of the caster's next Magic phase. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 36". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 13+.

Remains in play. Doom and Darkness is a hex spell with a range of 24". The target suffers a -3 penalty to its Leadership. The Wizard can choose to extend the range of this spell to 48". If they do so, the casting value is increased to 12+.

The Fate of Bjuna is a direct damage spell with a range of 12" and targets a single enemy model (even a character in a unit). The target suffers a number of hits equal to 2D6 minus their own Toughness. Hits from the Fate of Bjuna cause a wound on a roll of 2+ which Ignores Armour saves. If the target survives, they are subject to Stupidity for the remainder of the game.

Remains in play. The Purple Sun is a magical vortex that uses the small round template. Once the template is placed, the player then nominates the direction in which the Purple Sun will move. To determine how many inches the template moves, roll an artillery dice and multiply the result by 3. Any model touched by the template must pass an Initiative test or suffer a Wound using the Multiple Wounds (D3) and Ignores Armour Saves special rules as well as ignoring Regeneration. If the result on the artillery dice is a misfire, centre the template on the caster and roll a scatter dice and a D6. The template moves the number of inches equal to the result of the D6, in the direction shown on the scatter dice (if you roll a Hit!, use the little arrow shown on the Hit! symbol). In either event, in subsequent turns, the Purple Sun travels in a random direction and moves a number of inches equal to the roll on an artillery dice. If a misfire is rolled in subsequent turns, the Purple Sun collapses in upon itself and is removed. A particularly brave Wizard can infuse the Purple Sun of Xereus with more power, so that it uses the large round template and causes Multiple Wounds (D6) instead. If they do so, the casting value is 25+.

Magic Items(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

The Warhammer world is rich in magical artefacts and holy relics of great power. Soul-drinking swords, impenetrable suits of armour, ancient tomes of sorcerous knowledge and lost rings of incalculable might - many a war has been fought solely for the possession of such treasures and the power they bestow.

Selecting Magic Items(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Each Warhammer Armies book describes in detail the many different kinds of magic item that each army can use. Here we shall examine the magic items that are commonly used by all races. Where a model has the option of choosing one or more magic items, it will be clearly stated in their army list entry, as will any restrictions on the magic items they can take.

In addition to any specific restrictions noted in the relevant Warhammer Armies book, there are rules that govern the selection of all magic items, regardless of the bearer's allegiance. These can be summarised as follows:

Unique(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Magic items are considered to be unique – you can only have one of each in your army unless otherwise stated in the magic item's rules. Whilst I describe the magic items in this appendix as 'common' I mean to say that they are common to all armies in the Warhammer world and not that they are commonplace in any sense. Even the least potent magic item is a dangerous device, steeped in the fickle powers of sorcery, and is extremely rare. A fortunate hoarder of trinkets can consider themself-lucky to see one example of a particular 'common' magic item in their lifetime, if at all.

Balance of Power(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Usually, only characters can carry magic items. Each model can normally only carry one of each type of magic item. Magic items are divided into six categories: Magic Weapons, Magic Armour, Talismans, Enchanted Items, Arcane Items and Magic Standards. Each category covers a particular kind of item and 'family' of effects – Magic Weapons give bonuses to a model's fighting skill, for example, whilst Talismans provide protection. A model can only ever choose one item from each category, unless specified. If they were to do otherwise, the magical emanations from two similar types of item would overlap, cancel out and ultimately explode in a suitably messy fashion (although it would probably look very spectacular, so it wouldn't be a complete loss). The only exceptions to this rule are some special characters, who might well have two magical weapons, for example. In these (rare) cases, we assume that magical safeguards have been built in to the items so that both can be borne by the same individual.

Magical Interference(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Wizards cannot choose magic armour unless they have an option for 'normal' armour. Magic is the stuff of dreams and nebulous imagination, and rests uneasily alongside the physical. There is little more real and physical than wrought metal, and its tenacious actuality casts a peculiar and unyielding shadow in a Wizard's mind. As a result, most Wizards cannot wield the Winds of Magic if they wear armour of any kind - their magical senses are smothered by the armour's embrace – and so cannot choose an item of Magic Armour.

The only exception to this is when a Wizard has armour as part of their standard equipment or an option for 'normal' armour, such as light armour, or a shield. Such sorcerers have trained their mind to focus and can wear armour without confusion or penalty. The chief examples of this kind of Wizard are the dread Chaos Sorcerers of the frozen north.

Magic Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 154)

Magic weapons are artefacts of bloodshed, pure and simple – they grant the wielder extra abilities or an increased characteristic profile so that they might better slay their enemies.

Unless otherwise stated, a magic weapon is treated as a hand weapon (replacing the model's regular hand weapon), and follows the rules for such. This means that a magic weapon can be used with both an additional hand weapon or shield/buckler following their normal rules. In the case of non-magical additional hand weapons, the +1 Attack does not benefit from any special rules from the magic weapon.

In order for a model to be able to choose a particular piece of weapon (such as great weapon, polearm or two hand weapons) they must be able to pick this as a mundane option or have it as part of their default equipment. Note that magic weapons that count as normal hand weapons may be taken by any model that can choose magic weapons.

What's in a Name?

The magic weapons listed below often have a name that describes them as specifically being a sword or another particular type of weapon. This doesn't mean that the model has to have a sword to use the 'Ogre Blade'. We can simply assume that their axe, hammer or other suitable hand weapon has the same properties and is, for example, an 'Ogre Axe'.

I'm Using This One

A character that has a magic close combat weapon cannot use any other close combat weapons (his magic weapon is their pride and joy, and he's sure as sunrise going to use it). If a character has more than one magic weapon, they must choose which one to use at the start of the combat (unless a rule specifies that both can be used at the same time) – the chosen weapon must be used for the duration of the combat.

Any successful To Hit rolls in close combat with this sword are multiplied into 2 Hits.

Close combat attacks made with this sword are resolved at +3 Strength.

A character using this blade gains +3 on their Attacks characteristic.

Close combat attacks made with this sword are resolved at +2 Strength.

The bearer has +1 Strength and +1 Attack for every enemy character in base contact with them or their unit. These bonuses are calculated at the start of each round of close combat and last until its end.

A character using this blade gains +2 on their Attacks characteristic.

Two hand weapons. The bearer has Weapon Skill 10.

Close combat attacks made with this sword have the Ignores Armour saves special rule.

A character using this sword gains the Always Strikes First special rule.

Attacks made with the Bone Blade have the Multiple Wounds (D3) special rule.

The character wielding this blade gains the Parry (5+) special rule.

Attacks made with the Relic Sword will always wound on a 3+, unless they would normally need a lower result.

The character, and any unit they are with, gains the Immunity (Psychology) special rule.

A character using this blade gains the Armour Piercing (3) special rule.

The wielder of the Shrieking Blade causes Fear.

A character using this blade gains +1 on their Attacks characteristic.

Close combat attacks made with this sword are resolved at +1 Strength.

Attacks made with the Sword of Striking receive a +1 bonus to hit.

The bearer has the Frenzy special rule and can never lose their Frenzy.

A character using this blade gains the Armour Piercing (2) special rule.

Attacks made with the Venom Sword have the Poisoned Attacks special rule.

A character using this blade gains the Armour Piercing (1) special rule.

A monster or character that suffers an unsaved wound from the Tormentor Sword has the Stupidity special rule for the rest of the game.

A monster or character that suffers an unsaved wound from the Warrior Bane permanently loses one Attack for each unsaved wound (to a minimum of 1 Attack).

Magic Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 156)

This section contains enchanted suits of armour – magical breastplates, ensorcelled shields, and so on. Only the most influential characters will be clad in magical armour from top to toe. Most characters might have a single piece of magical armour, which they combine with ordinary pieces of equipment.

Except where otherwise stated, magical suits of armour (light, medium or heavy) and shields follow the same rules as mundane ones, but keep in mind that a model can only have one suit of armour and one shield, so if you give a model a magical suit of armour or a magical shield, it replaces any mundane equivalent already worn by the model.

In order for a model to be able to choose a particular piece of armour (such as heavy armour or a shield) they must be able to pick this (or another armour that gives a better save value) as a mundane option or have it be part of their default equipment.

Magic armours that are not specified as suits or shields (such as helmets, gauntlets and so on) can always be worn by models that are allowed to wear any non-magical armour.

Heavy armour. The Armour of Destiny grants the wearer a Ward save (4+).

Medium armour. The Armour of Fortune grants the wearer a Ward save (5+).

Heavy armour. The Armour of Resilience grants the wearer +1 to their Toughness characteristic.

Model on foot only. The helmet gives the wearer a 6+ armour save. Any successful roll to wound made against the wearer of the Trickster's Helm must be re-rolled.

Heavy armour. The Armour of Silvered Steel grants its wearer a 2+ armour save that cannot be improved by any means.

Light armour. Enemies suffer a -1 to hit penalty when attempting to strike the wearer in close combat.

Light armour. The Gambler's Armour grants the wearer a Ward Save (6+).

The helmet gives the wearer a 6+ armour save. In addition, at the start of each Close Combat phase, choose an enemy character in base contact with the bearer or his unit. That character must immediately take a Leadership test. If the test is failed, the character succumbs to the helm's sibilant whispers of malice and jealousy. In this Close Combat phase, the victim cannot make attacks and is hit automatically.

Shield. The bearer has a 1+ armour save against shooting attacks.

Shield. The bearer gains Magic Resistance (1).

The helmet gives the wearer a 6+ armour save. The wearer has the Immunity (Flaming Attacks) special rule.

Shield. The bearer gains +2 to their armour save, rather than +1 that a normal shield would give.

Shield. One use only. The first hit suffered by the bearer of the Charmed Shield is ignored on a roll of 2+.

Talismans(Main Rulebook, p. 158)

The Talismans category includes charms, amulets and other tokens of protection.

The Talisman of Preservation grants the bearer a Ward save (4+).

The Obsidian Lodestone grants Magic Resistance (3).

The Talisman of Endurance grants the bearer a Ward save (5+).

The bearer re-rolls failed armour saves.

The Obsidian Amulet grants the bearer Magic Resistance (2).

One use only. The Opal Amulet bestows a Ward Save (2+) against the first unsaved wound suffered by the bearer, after which its power fades and it cannot be used again during the game.

The Talisman of Protection grants the bearer a Ward save (6+).

The Obsidian Trinket grants Magic Resistance (1).

The bearer of the Seed of Rebirth has the Regeneration (6+) special rule.

The bearer of the Dragonbane Gem has the Immunity (Flaming Attacks) special rule.

One use only. The Lucky Trinket allows the bearer to re-roll a single failed armour or Ward save.

Arcane Items(Main Rulebook, p. 159)

Arcane items are items that enhance a Wizard's magical powers in some fashion. Only a character with a Wizard level can carry Arcane Items. Characters with no sensitivity to magical essences and mysteries will either find an Arcane Item useless and inert, or have their brains sucked out through their ears should they try to use it. Unlike other magic items; Wizards can take up to two Arcane Items. If they do so, one of their Arcane items must be marked as "one use only". Note that they may not take two "one use only" items.

The Wizard adds +1 to all of their channelling attempts.

One use only. When an enemy cast a spell, the bearer may immediately counter its effects by reading the Destroy Magic Scroll to release the spell written upon it instead of attempting to dispel the spell by using dispel dice. This gives them 6 free dispel dice to attempt to dispel the spell, which cannot be combined with any other dispel dice (Ultimate Power applies as normal). In addition, roll a D6. On a 4+, the spell is destroyed and the enemy caster loses access to the spell for the rest of the game (note that this has no effect on Innate Bound spells).

One use only. When an enemy spell has been cast, a Wizard who has a Feedback Scroll can read it instead of attempting to dispel the spell. The spell is cast as normal, but, after the spell has been resolved, roll a dice for every dice used to cast the spell. The casting Wizard suffer 1 Wound which Ignores Armour Saves for every result of 5+ rolled.

One use only. When an enemy spell has been cast, a Wizard who has a Hex Scroll can read it instead of attempting to dispel the spell. The spell is cast as normal, but a portion of the spell's energy is transformed and redirected at the caster. The enemy wizard can resist the spell's effects by rolling equal to or under his wizard level on a D6. If he fails, an amphibian transformation takes hold and he becomes a small, slimy toad! Whilst transformed, the wizard cannot channel or cast spells, all of his magic items and mundane equipment (armour, weapons, etc.) temporarily stop working and all of his characteristics are reduced to 1 (except for his wounds, which are unaffected). His controlling player can roll a D6 at the start of each of his subsequent magic phases; the spell dissipates on a roll of 4+ and the wizard returns to his normal form (but still attempts to eat flies for several days afterward).

At the end of each magic phase (yours and enemy's), you can save up to three unused power/dispel dice from the pool and store them in the rod. At the beginning of each successive magic phase (yours and enemy's), roll a dice. If the result is equal or higher to the number of dice stored, add them to the power/dispel dice pool, if the result is lower than the number of dice stored, they are lost.

One use only. When an enemy spell has been cast, a wizard who has a dispel scroll can read it instead of attempting to dispel the spell by using dispel dice. This gives them 6 free dispel dice to attempt to dispel the spell, which cannot be combined with any other dispel dice (Ultimate Power applies as normal). This may also be used to dispel spells that Remains in Play.

One use only. The Mystic Shield of Brag may be used against any enemy spell that directly targets any friendly unit. The enemy spell has no effect.

One use only. When an enemy spell has been cast, a Wizard who has a Scroll of Leeching can read it instead of attempting to dispel the spell. The spell is cast as normal, but, after the spell has been resolved, the bearer of the scroll adds a number of dispel dice to his pool equal to the number of dice used to cast the spell.

The Wizard gains the Loremaster special rule.

One use only. The Mystic Maze may be used against any enemy spell that directly targets any friendly unit. Roll 3D6 measured from the centre of the unit; this is the distance the spell scatters in a random direction. Should the spell end up on another unit, this unit will become the target of the spell; otherwise the spell has no effect.

The Familiar adds one Power Dice in each of your Magic phases. Only the owner may use this power dice.

The bearer gains a +1 bonus to the result of their spell dispelling attempts.

One use only. Declare you are using this item at the start of one of your magic phases. For the duration of the phase, when one of the bearer's spells is dispelled by an enemy wizard, roll a D6. On a 4+, that wizard suffers a wound with no armour saves allowed.

The bearer gains a +1 bonus to the result of their spell casting attempts.

One use only. If the wizard rolls on the miscast table they can choose to re-roll the result.

One use only. The Forbidden Rod adds +D6 dice to the power pool at the start of the caster's own magic phase, but also inflicts 1 Wound which Ignores Armour Saves on the bearer.

One use only. The Hypnotic Eye Scroll can be used whenever an enemy wizard successfully casts a spell instead of attempting to dispel. The casting wizard must pass a Leadership test; if failed, you may choose the target of the spell just as if you had cast the spell yourself. If no target can be chosen, the spell has no effect. Note that the spell is still cast from the original Wizard as normal.

One use only. A Power Scroll can be used when the Wizard makes a casting attempt. During that casting attempt, any roll of a double (except 1's) counts as a 6 for the purpose of resolving Ultimate Power.

One use only. The Gem of Taranto can be used whenever you successfully dispel an enemy spell (except Bound Spells). The bearer of the Gem will be able to cast the spell themselves (limited by their Wizard level as normal) for the remainder of the game, even if it is from a lore not normally available to them.

One use only. The bearer can re-roll all of the dice rolled to cast or dispel a spell. This can effectively cancel a miscast result, and cause Ultimate Power or a miscast.

One use only. The Wizard can declare that they are using the power stone immediately before casting a spell. If they do so, +D3 dice are added to the power dice that they are going to roll (you still need to roll at least one dice from the power pool).

One use only. When an enemy spell has been cast, a Wizard who has a Scroll of Shielding can read it instead of attempting to dispel the spell. The spell is cast as normal, but the target of the spell is granted Magic Resistance (3) against the spell.

The Wizard knows one additional spell from those normally allowed to them.

The Wizard's Staff allows the bearer to use one more dice than they are normally allowed to when casting a spell (eg, a Wizard that can normally use up to two dice to cast spells will be able to use up to three dice).

Enchanted Items(Main Rulebook, p. 162)

The Enchanted Items category includes all manner of wonderful artefacts too unique or specific to be included in another category. They are often amongst the most prized magical items to possess.

After deployment zones have been agreed, but before the armies have been deployed, place a watchtower building no more than 10x10 cm in base size in your deployment zone to represent the Folding Fortress. This is treated as a standard building. If you do not have a suitable building to place, you cannot use Fozzrik's Folding Fortress.

The wearer is treated as being a Level 2 Wizard who can use a randomly chosen spell lore from any of the Eight Lores of Magic at the start of the game. However, they also have the Stupidity special rule. Note that they may not choose any Arcane Items.

The Crown of Command gives the bearer and any unit they join the Stubborn special rule for as long as the bearer remains with the unit.

Bound spell, Power level 4. The Ruby Ring of Ruin contains the Fireball spell from the Lore of Fire.

One use only. The Lifestone of Ashraaz can be used at the start of any close combat phase. The bearer can swap his current number Wounds with the current number of Wounds of any one enemy model in base contact. The effect lasts the remainder of the game.

Bound Spell, Power Level 4. Remains in play. The Orb of Thunder contains a hex spell that effects all models with the Fly special rule. When cast, no models may use their Fly special rule and must move on the ground at their normal Movement rate.

Infantry models on foot only. The owner of this magical carpet has the Fly (10) special rule. However, they cannot join units.

One use only. The Healing Potion can be drunk at the start of the controlling player's turn. The model immediately recovers D3 Wounds (ignoring any additional Wounds from mounts) up to their starting value.

The bearer, and all units in base contact with them (friend and foe) must re-roll successful ward saves.

The wearer of this mask causes Terror. However, other models can never use their Leadership.

Model on foot only. The Boots of Flight gives the wearer Movement 10 as well as the Strider and Swiftstride special rules.

One use only. The Potion of Speed can be drunk at the start of any phase. The character gains +D3 Attacks until the end of the turn.

One use only. The Potion of Strength can be drunk at the start of any phase. The character gains +D3 Strength until the end of the turn.

One use only. The Potion of Toughness can be drunk at the start of any phase. The character gains +D3 Toughness until the end of the turn.

The character (and any unit they are with) gain a Ward Save (6+) against war machine weapons.

The model gains an additional Strength 3 Attack. This does not benefit from any weapon used by the character. You may still take another Enchanted Item in addition to the Warrior Familiar, and it also does not count against the maximum points limit of magic items normally allowed for the character.

Magic Standards(Main Rulebook, p. 163)

Some units are allowed to carry magic banners, as detailed in their army list entry. The only character permitted to carry a Magic Standard is the army's battle Standard Bearer.

Standards can only be carried by a standard bearer, as shown in the army list in the relevant Warhammer Armies book.

A unit with this magic standard adds +D6 to combat resolution, rolled each time it is used.

A unit with this magic standard gains +1 To Hit in the first round of close combat.

A unit with this standard gains the Stubborn special rule.

A unit with this magic standard causes Terror in its enemies.

A unit with this magic standard can re-roll its charge distance dice.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Armour Piercing (1) special rule.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Strider special rule. If the unit is riding a mount, the mount benefit from the Strider special rule as well.

A unit with this magic standard gains a Ward save (6+) against missile attacks.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Swiftstride special rule.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Immunity (Panic) special rule.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Magic Resistance (2) special rule.

A unit with this magic standard adds +1 to combat resolution.

A unit with this magic standard re-roll failed Break tests.

A unit with this magic standard has +1 Leadership, but cannot use the General's Inspiring Presence special rule. If the General joins this unit, other units using their Inspiring Presence does not benefit from the +1 Leadership.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Flaming Attacks special rule.

A unit with this magic standard gains the Magic Resistance (1) special rule.

A unit with this magic standard gains +1 to their Leadership when taking Rally tests.

One use only. A unit with this magic standard can re-roll its first failed Leadership test.

A unit with this magic standard causes Fear in models with the Fly special rule.